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P. Kapustenko*, O. Arsenyeva, L. Tovazhnyanskyy Plate Heat Exchangers for Condensation Processes: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives HEHT Czech Republic show/hide abstract

With the development of humankind, the demand for energy consumption steadily increases to satisfy the rising population and comfort requirements of the population. Even with an increasing share of renewables, fossil fuel combustion still plays an important part in energy generation with the inevitable discharge of CO2 and other harmful substances to the environment. The increase in energy usage efficiency can contribute to mitigating these effects. One option to achieve this is enhanced heat energy recuperation between process streams in the industry and civic sector with waste heat utilisation. The condensation of different vapours is the process encountered in many industrial applications, and increasing the heat recuperation in this process requires to use of efficient heat transfer equipment with enhanced heat transfer, among which Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) is at leading positions. A number of research works have been conducted in recent years concerning construction development and heat transfer enhancement in conditions of limited pressure drop to increase PHE performance in condensation processes. The results of studies on heat transfer and pressure drop in the two-phase condensing flow inside channels of PHE with different geometries of corrugations are discussed. The total pressure drop allowable for gaseous streams in heat exchangers is relatively small in many implementations. The structure of two-phase flow in PHE channels of complex geometry is very different than in tubes and flat wall channels. The relative differences in approaches to enhance PHE performance in condensation processes are analysed based on its modelling, optimisation and design. The directions and prospects for future developments are formulated, and potential saving in the economy and environmental footprints is presented.

J. Pluskal*, B. Zach, R. Šomplák, J. Kůdela, J. Jadrný, M. Šyc Evaluation of the Impact of Membrane-Based Post-Combustion Carbon Capture on a Waste-to-Energy Plant: a Case Study FMM Czech Republic show/hide abstract

The energy crisis around the world, increasing production of waste, and landfilling restrictions suggest that waste-to-energy is a solution that will be more and more common and, in some cases, unavoidable. However, a significant part of carbon in municipal solid waste is of fossil origin, it may be, therefore, desirable to apply carbon capture processes to waste-to-energy plants. Post-combustion carbon capture can be based on various principles, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of membrane-based post-combustion carbon capture on a waste‑to‑energy plant for various scenarios of CO2 recovery and purity. However, the availability of suitable membrane materials often requires multi-stage separations, posing challenges to system configuration and without sophisticated optimization tools, accurately assessing the carbon capture system becomes difficult. This research builds upon an existing study and expands its conceptual framework by conducting additional analyses and evaluations with different parameters and membrane arrangements, providing a comprehensive understanding of the problem for future technology utilization. The robust evaluation of a wide range of scenarios included in the investigation and the non-linear nature of the problem resulted in high computing demands. Therefore, genetic algorithms were used to significantly reduce the calculating time. This approach, however, does not guarantee the identification of global optimum, therefore, the results were validated for specific scenarios by the exact previously developed tool. The quantification of energy consumption allows the comparison of different carbon capture technologies based on operating costs. The results confirm the importance of process optimization, show the influence of individual parameters, and quantify the disproportionate drop in energy consumption with decreasing target CO2 recovery.

Z. Han, Q. Kong, D. Xu, T. Ma*, Q. Wang Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Plate-Fin Recuperator for Micro Gas Turbine HEHT China show/hide abstract

A recuperator is a mandatory component to achieve higher thermal efficiencies in micro gas turbines of less than 500kW. Owing to the lack of existing experimental data for high-temperature, the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a recuperator with plate-fin for micro gas turbines were experimentally investigated. A plate-fin recuperator was fabricated using brazing technique. Experiments were conducted by varying the hot air inlet temperature and mass flow rate in the ranges of 300-700℃ and 1.5-3g/s, respectively. Based on the experimental data, the result was found that the pressure drop got larger in the high temperature range. On the other hand, the hot air inlet temperature variation scarcely affected the effectiveness of the fabricated plate-fin recuperator. In addition, an analytical model was proposed to predict the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the plate-fin recuperator in the high-temperature range accurately. The effectiveness and total pressure drop results from the developed model were in close agreement with the measurement results, with relative errors less than 5% and 12%, respectively, regardless of the hot air inlet temperature and mass flow rate. Consequently, the proposed analytical model could be utilized as a design tool for recuperators with plate-fin for micro gas turbines.

P. Jiang*, Q. Xiao, Y.V. Fan Antimicrobial Resistance Burden Assessment via Incorporating Global and Local Data CP China show/hide abstract

Residual antibiotics in natural aquatic environments and the resulting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issues seriously threaten human lives and health. Due to the absence of dose-response information on AMR and the limitation of burden quantification based on global database information, there are great challenges in quantifying the burden of AMR in local natural aquatic environments (e.g., a specific country/area) for evidence-based policies and control measures. This study proposes an integrated analysis framework via combining the entropy weight method and the analytic hierarchy process, aiming to evaluate the relative burden of AMR in natural aquatic environments by incorporating global and local data information. The entropy weight method employs the local abundance information of the data to calculate weight coefficients between different antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). The analytic hierarchy process combines global information with the sorting of the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and ARGs Ranker databases to generate weight coefficients of different ARGs and ARB. The final weight coefficient is determined by combining the two types of weights obtained. Based on the statistical significance testing, there is a significant difference in the distribution of ARGs and ARB between freshwater lakes and tributaries. According to the sensitivity analysis, the robustness of this analysis framework is strong. Compared to traditional assessment methods that rely solely on global or local data information, this new framework enables local agencies to better assess the emerging aquatic contamination of natural aquatic environments and provide an effective reference for decision-makers to choose the best suitable drinking water source.

M. Zemelko*, S. Bukhkalo Rheological Properties of Chocolate Masses with Functional Components: Comparative Study and Optimization PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

The development of the confectionery industry has growing trends towards healthy eating, which involves the use of natural components in food products. According to the analysis of literary sources, the classification and identification of components was carried out to ensure a wide range of quality products and reduce their cost in the confectionery industry, where various types of chocolate masses are used. We have defined mathematical models that take into account some conditions of the activity of a food enterprise and the planning of technological processes. The appearance, organoleptic indicators, viscosity, stability, temperature of its use are controlled in chocolate masses for covering confectionery products. The viscosity of the chocolate mass depends on the chemical structure of the components, humidity, dispersion and fat content. Selected functional components can perform phytoestrogen, antioxidant and prebiotic functions. The work describes the functional components. In recent years, a number of research works have been carried out on the development of recipes for chocolate masses with functional components and regulation of their rheological properties depending on the purpose. To reduce the viscosity, it is proposed to use a food additive-emulsifier from fatty raw materials of different nature. Based on modeling, the influence of functional components and food additive-emulsifier on the viscosity and shelf life of chocolate masses was analyzed. The result of the presented research is a solution to the scientific and applied problem of increasing the efficiency of the processes of food enterprises by developing and optimizing mathematical models of technologies. Further research is aimed at the selection of scientifically based technologies, equipment and production methods, the development of the necessary technological schemes and equipment, the justification of the choice of resources for the implementation of these project solutions.

C. Si*, Y.V. Fan, P. Varbanov, L. Čuček, M. Dokl Allocation of Environmental Impacts to Support Plastic Circular Economy: the Cooperative Game Methods FMM Czech Republic show/hide abstract

Plastic waste minimisation and recycling towards a circular economy necessitate proper quantitative measurement for monitoring and the cooperation of stakeholders throughout the entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment is the primary approach to quantify the environmental impacts of a product life cycle or services. However, it encounters challenges in allocating the environmental impacts to respective stakeholders across different stages, especially in complex systems involving multiple cycles and waste recycling.  This may lead to perceived unfairness in responsibility allocation, potentially discouraging stakeholder cooperation. This study aims to integrate cooperative game theory into Life Cycle Assessment to allocate the environmental impacts more equitably to the relevant stakeholders. The Shapley Value, the Nucleolus, and the Least core are proposed as the allocation methods, while Core evaluates the stability of the allocations. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles is selected as the case study, examining four scenarios with distinct end-of-life management approaches and comparing the results obtained through the allocation methods. By allocating the environmental impacts to stakeholders rather than merely by life cycle stages, it is anticipated to foster long-term cooperation among all stakeholders, thereby promoting sustainable plastic waste management. This work presents and compares a set of environmental impact allocation solutions for different stakeholders. Considering stakeholders as rational individuals, these distribution methods could be applied to allocate environmental responsibility in various scenarios, ensuring the sustained motivation for long-term cooperation.

O. Bilous*, S. Bukhkalo Complex Antioxidant for Processes of Stabilization Vegetable Oil: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

The needs of the sustainable development the production of varieties of vegetable oils are related to the further stabilization of their properties during storage. On the basis of experimental studies, mathematical processing of results and theoretical generalizations, the scientific task of creating a scientific basis for the development and application of a complex plant antioxidant from walnut leaves and calendula flowers, which will ensure the stabilization of vegetable oils against oxidative deterioration. The mechanism of fat oxidation is presented and the need to protect fats and oils from oxidative deterioration is substantiated. The composition of substances capable of being oxidation inhibitors in walnut leaves and calendula flowers was analyzed. The phenomenon of synergism that occurs when oxidation inhibitors interact with each other is highlighted. Experimental studies using approximate modeling determined rational technological conditions for extracting antioxidants from walnut leaves in the form of a water-ethanol solution. The results of studies antioxidant properties of the extract of walnut leaves were determined, which lengthens the induction period at the initiated oxidation of sunflower oil by 1.87 times. One option to achieve this is synergistic effect occurs when antioxidants from walnut leaves and calendula flowers (ratio of components 1:1) are combined into sunflower refined deodorized oil, which contains 75 mg % tocopherol. The relative of kinetic parameters of sunflower oil oxidation in the presence of a complex plant antioxidant were determined; the effective chain breaking reaction constant (k7) of a complex vegetable antioxidant in the complex antioxidant-sunflower oil system was estimated, it is 2.7 × 106, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of many plant antioxidants, for which k7 is 105. The technology of stabilization of vegetable oils by complex antioxidant and the draft technological instructions for sunflower oil stabilized with vegetable antioxidant has been developed. The directions and prospects for future developments are formulated, and potential saving in the economy and environmental footprints is presented.

A. Solomakha*, V. Rifert, P. Barabash The Centrifugal Mass Exchange Distiller for Wastewater Reclamation in Closed Life-Support Systems WM Ukraine show/hide abstract

For water regeneration in closed life support systems (e.g. in space flight, on submarines, etc.), a mass exchange cycle with humidification and dehumidification of air can be used. If a heated aqueous solution is fed into a stream of unsaturated air, part of the water evaporates and saturates the air as a result of mass transfer processes. After the air is cooled, moisture (distillate) condenses from it. The use of a centrifugal distiller significantly intensifies the evaporation of liquid, which makes the apparatus compact. In addition, it is possible to operate such a device in zero gravity. An experimental centrifugal humidifier with a rotating mesh layer was manufactured. The system capacity is 1.3 kg per hour. The optimal rotation speed and wire mesh design were determined. The effect of liquid flow rate and the number of mesh layers on the performance of the device was investigated. The results of the experimental studies are summarized by new relations suitable for engineering calculations.

V. Kravchenko, S. Bukhkalo* Modelling for Synergetic Processes Utilization of Polymers Solid Waste: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

The recycling technique is demonstrated on examples of recycling polyethylene
film by synergetic methods. The study of the polymer degradation based on
analysis of chemical reactions in the polymer film is presented. It is discussed
how to predict the properties of the polymer after its use and to develop the
efficient technique for its recycling. The development of processing is tightly
linked with their washing and subsequent drying, therefore, with the study of
the basic laws of heat and moisture transfer in the polymer part of solid waste.
The synergetic approach for efficient utilization of Polymer Solid Waste is
presented: organization of targeted collection, classification-identification and
targeted classification-identification of varieties. One option to achieve this is
accounting for chemical processes in polymers during the use of the original
product, at the stages of its recycling and final production cycle. In this phase of
work explore possible synergetic mechanisms for the advancement of efficiency
for using of solid waste polymers. The regularities of changes in the
performance of solid waste polymers by energy recurs from solid waste.
Concluding review of the literature and the necessary articles on the subject: as
technologies and economies develop and become more complex, energy needs
increase greatly; types and methods of solid waste polymers, as well as the
possibility of researching the basic set of main technology indicators are
classified; identified possible areas of work in obtaining the necessary
information and results. For example, to submit the problem of wastes
utilization and recycling is present as complex research and analysis of energy-
and resource saving processes for treatment of polymer wastes of various origin.
It is necessary to determine the possibilities for further development of complex
innovative projects: updating of identification and analysis methods, devices
and equipment for research within the framework of complex innovative
projects, which is the main factor determining; the volume and type ofintellectual property objects for the realization of the experimental results, taking into account the algorithms determined by us.

J. Yao, Z. Zhang, D. Zheng, J. Wang*, C. Yin Photothermal Performance of a Direct Absorption Solar Collector Based on Hybrid Nanofluids HEHT China show/hide abstract

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the photothermal efficiency of a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) with hybrid nanofluids. The initial work aims to assess the contribution of carbon nanotubes to improving photothermal efficiency, seeking to determine the optimal mass concentration of carbon nanotubes. The iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are dispersed in the optimal carbon nanotube nanofluid (with a mass concentration of 0.008 wt.%) to form hybrid magnetic nanofluids. Thermal and exergy efficiencies are adopted as the criteria to evaluate the photothermal performance of the DASC. After adding carbon nanotubes to the base fluid, the thermal efficiency increases from 12.66% to 21.48%, and the exergy efficiency experiences a growth ranging from 2.08% to 3.89%. Furthermore, the increase in thermal and exergy efficiencies achieve 21.93-37.04% and 3.22-6.88% using the hybrid nanofluid. Further study is performed to analyze the effects of magnetic field strength on the thermal and exergy efficiencies. The results show that the improvements in thermal and exergy efficiencies achieve 37.68% and 7.12% under a magnetic field. The most notable thermal and exergy efficiencies are 51.89% and 9.14%, when the concentrations of carbon nanotubes and iron oxide NPs are 0.008 wt.% and 0.016 wt.% under the magnetic field generated by a current of 0.4 A.

J.R. Lizárraga-Morazán, M. Picón Núñez* Design and Optimisation of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Collectors for the Supply of Low and Medium Temperature Heat REUS Mexico show/hide abstract

For a wide range of temperature applications, the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTC) have proved to be the most suitable solar capture technology considering the net present value of the energy savings over the lifetime of the installation (NPVES). The optical and thermal phenomena involved in the operation of these systems are complex in a such a way that the solution of accurate models for its sizing requires cumbersome approaches thus making its use in optimisation studies an arduous task. This situation makes it necessary to develop simplified and accurate models. Such is the purpose of this work.

 A new transient thermal model was developed and validated against experimental data published in the open literature. The model proved to be robust and accurate and was then used for optimisation studies employing a heuristic approach such as PSO (Particle Swarm Optimisation). The decision variables were the mass Flow rate, the diameter of the receiver tube, the glass envelope diameter, length, aperture width, and the type of working fluid. Two feasible objective function were considered, the total integrated useful heat (TUH) and the life cycle saving analysis (LCSA). The optimisation was performed considering typical ambient conditions in winter and summer.

 The study looks at applications with low and medium temperature. Two case studies are analysed, case study 1 with applications at 60°C and case study 2 for a temperature of 120°C. The object of the optimisation is to find the optimal geometry that maximises the total useful energy and maximises the net present value of the energy savings.  To validate the model, the results are compared with a base case published in the open literature. An important assumption for the optimisation is that the systems have the same installed surface area. For case study 1, the optimised PTC length, aperture width, receiver tube diameter and glass envelope are 11.8, 5, 0.01 and 0.11 m, while the base case dimensions are 24.3, 2.4, 0.05 and 0.14 m. For case study 2, the optimised geometrical dimensions are 24.2, 5.5, 0.01 and 0.11 m compared to the base case dimensions 36.5, 3.6, 0.05, y 0.14 m. In both cases the heat transfer fluid is pressurised water. The optimised geometries reported threefold increment in the amount of captured heat maximising the economic benefits throughout the year. Additionally, the optimised designs are flexible as they operate within a range of mass flow rates without undermining its thermal performance.

S. Bukhkalo*, V. Kravchenko The Processes of Technology Bakery Products with Curative and Preventive Properties: Developments and Future Perspectives PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

With the development and growth of mankind's need to consume bakery products, it is constantly necessary to satisfy the growing population's desire for their quality. Even with an increase in the share of enriched bakery products with therapeutic and preventive properties, it is necessary to expand the provision of functional properties to them. The results of studies and according to the analysis of literary sources, the classification and identification of therapeutic and preventive additives according to their properties and purpose in bakery production was carried out. One option to achieve this is proposed to expand the assortment of bakery products for medical and preventive purposes and to change the method of production of the product with the addition of an additive chosen by us - seaweed according to the regulatory and technical documentation for raw materials and materials. Formulation and methods of quality control of bakery products for therapeutic and preventive purposes have been developed. The results of studies an improved functional scheme of the production processes of a new bakery product is proposed. An innovative machine and equipment line for the production of bakery products for medical and preventive purposes has been determined. A complex model of production and quality control of bakery products with the addition of seaweed. Increased preventive and therapeutic properties of the bakery product due to its enrichment with mineral substances K, Na, Mg, Ca, Si, S, Cl, I, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, E, R, PP, polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, phytohormones, alginic acid, amino acids, polysaccharides. The selected technology for the production of bakery products for medical and preventive purposes allows to increase the volumetric yield and porosity of the product. The directions and prospects of further development are formulated, the potential of savings and consequences for the environment are presented.

S. Bukhkalo*, L. Rudnieva Technology for Processing Wax-Like Components into Food and Technical Products; Recent Developments and Future Perspectives PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

The direction of research is devoted development of a technology for extracting wax-like components from wastes of the fat-and-oil industry and processing the obtained wax-like components in food and technical products. The relevance of the work is associated with the improvement of the technology and the rational use of wax-like components of plant origin. In the process of processing oilseeds, especially sunflower, at the stages of dehulling of seeds, the production waste is sunflower husk, which does not find further use. Improving the technology for extracting useful substances from waste and their further use are quite relevant in our time. Growing demands on the quality of food products, expanding the scope of application of wax-like components and increasing competition in the field of food production require improvements in the technology of processing secondary raw materials, including wax-like components. In order to utilize waste and determine possible areas of practical application, studies were carried out on a method for extracting wax-like components from sunflower husks. In the work, for the first time, new scientific data on the extraction of wax-like components from sunflower husks by immersion and percolation methods using an organic solvent and the use of the obtained wax-like components in wax-containing products were obtained. It has been experimentally proven that percolation followed by freezing of wax-like components from miscella is the optimal way to obtain wax-like components from sunflower husks. The possibility of complex use of waxes of vegetable origin as modifiers of surface properties of polymeric composites was investigated. Analytically proved that the investigated wax provides protection for the elastomeric compositions from atmospheric aging. The directions and prospects for future developments are formulated, and potential saving in the economy and environmental footprints is presented.

H.T. Do Thi, A.J. Toth* Investigation on Distillation Technology for Removal of Organic Halogen Compounds from Pharmaceutical Process Wastewaters with Life Cycle Analysis WM Hungary show/hide abstract

Distillation stands as a prevalent physicochemical method within wastewater treatment practices. The decision to opt for distillation can be attributed to various factors, including the potential for waste-free material recovery, the ability to dispose of organic substances, the potential for recycling distilled materials, the concentration of contaminants in collected form, and the manageable investment costs that suit a wide range of industrial contexts. This research focuses on the environmental impact of a distillation column's existence and utilization, specifically concerning treating pharmaceutical process wastewater containing organic halogen compounds (AOX). The investigation conducts the life cycle impact assessments through application of the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) and Recipe 2016 Endpoint (H) V1.06 methodologies, employing the SimaPro V9.3.0.3 software along with the Ecoinvent V3.8 database. In the context of emissions, the distillation column releases 1.11x10-2 kg CO2-eq, with operational and production processes contributing 91.9% and 8.1%, respectively. Integrating distillation with alternative energy options like solar, offshore wind, and onshore wind is being explored to mitigate adverse effects. Substituting hard coal with solar, wind offshore, and wind onshore energy can significantly reduce climate change impact by approximately one third.

A.J. Toth*, H.T. Do Thi, E. Haaz Model Development for Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures: Organophilic and Hydrophilic Pervaporations PAM Hungary show/hide abstract

The work presents removing low isobutanol content from process wastewater with hybrid, organophilic-hydrophilic pervaporations. There are several options for separating the binary isobutanol-water system. When separating on an industrial scale, it is essential that the most suitable alternative is implemented. The classical method of isobutanol-water separation is distillation. However, since the mixture forms heteroazeotrope, we can only achieve an azeotrope composition with conventional distillation. Azeotropic distillation is a solution, the alternative is membrane separation, including pervaporation. Appropriate computer modelling is an essential tool for planning and optimizing separation processes, which requires models that describe the processes as well as possible. The organophilic experiments required for modelling were performed on an isobutanol-water mixture with the PERVAP™ 4060 sheet membrane. Hydrophilic experiments with PERVAP™ 1510. Based on the measurement results, parameters were fitted to the model describing the pervaporation process supplemented with a concentration-dependent multiplication factor. The model was verified and integrated into the ChemCAD process simulator. After successful validation, the cheapest separation alternative is searched by dynamic programming. The goal was to find the membrane surface that separates 99.0-99.9 m/m% water and isobutanol from the 7 m/m% isobutanol-water mixture, as 'Water' and 'Alcohol product'. The Douglas's correlations were used for the cost calculations. Based on our simulation results, it can be concluded that isobutanol can be dehydrated with the organophilic-hydrophilic pervaporation system. To continue the work, comparing this separation alternative with the traditional distillation technique would be worthwhile.

E. Haaz, A.J. Toth* Method Development for Removal of Detergent Material from Process Wastewater WM Hungary show/hide abstract

The problem of process wastewater arises not only in the fine chemical industry, but also where the water is used for washing. In these cases, detergent is added to the water, which improves the washing ability. The washing water used during production contains detergents and impurities, and its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value causes serious environmental problems. Finding a solution is inevitable because of the high wastewater fines that the factory would have to pay if the wastewater were to enter the public sewer without any treatment. A method had to be found that follows the principle of the circular economy, that is, the industrial cycles can be closed, as in nature, and the water can be reused. Our proposed method focuses on wastewater types that contain specific detergents. The treatment had to reduce the wastewater with a high COD value below 1000 mgO2/L, which is the discharge limit. The goal was also to recycle or reuse the treated water instead of discharging it. Our new method, which belongs to the category of recommended physicochemical treatments, consists of a vacuum evaporator, which reduces COD by approx. From 8400 to 1100 mgO2/L. We performed both laboratory and pilot experiments. Since this COD value was not yet sufficient, we also used a reverse osmosis membrane operation. This two-step method, vacuum evaporation followed by reverse osmosis, was able to reduce COD in process wastewater below the emission limit. 100 mgO2/L can be achieved using the TriSep™ X201 membrane. The calculation of the penalty and the estimation of the costs of the procedures also prove the efficiency of our new method.

O. Fedorenko*, S. Kartyshev, P. Kapustenko, Y. Pitak Medical Glass Waste as a Basis of Antibacterial Coatings for Porcelain Stoneware Worktops EN Ukraine show/hide abstract

The most promising option of antibacterial protection for porcelain stoneware worktops is the application of coatings that have a long-lasting bactericidal effect. The modern technology of antibacterial glazes involves a high-energy process of frits production at 1500-1550 °C. The need to save energy requires reducing the use of high-value frits, including by replacing them with glass waste.

The composition and properties study of various glass products waste points to the technological, resource and environmental feasibility of using medical glass waste, used to store pharmaceutical substances. According to the results of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, it was established medical glass waste belong to the group of alkali-containing aluminoborosilicate glasses. The properties of such glasses, according to their technological characteristics, correspond to the conditions of porcelain stoneware high-speed firing, which allows production without technological process changes. To create a resource-saving technology of porcelain stoneware with an antibacterial coating, the bactericidal agents with prolonged antibacterial effect were determined, and the glass matrix composition based on medical glass waste was developed. 

It was established that to ensure the antibacterial effect of coatings in conditions of serious bacterial contamination, the use of phase-forming oxides is effective, provided their optimal ratio is SnO2:ZnO = 1:2 and SnO2:TiO2 = 1:1. On the base of medical glass waste the glazes composition was developed and the antibacterial coating with high operational properties in accordance with ISO 10545 was obtained. The coating is characterized by high antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (lg CFU ≥ 3.0 according to ISO 22196) and prolonged effect. Studies of the coatings phase composition and microstructure have shown that the specified effect is achieved due to intensive fine crystallization of phases combinations:  cassiterite (SnO2)+ganite (ZnAl2O4)+willemite (Zn2SiO4) or cassiterite (SnO2)+rutile (TiO2).

The development value of such antibacterial coating for porcelain stoneware slabs lies in the social orientation, in the application of an energy-saving technological solution and the targeted involvement of secondary raw materials, which in general also determines its competitiveness.

W.L. Ng, K.S. Woon* Developing Green Building Carbon Index Through Integrated Life Cycle Assessment and Multiple Linear Regression PAM Malaysia show/hide abstract

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been incorporated into green building rating systems (GBRS) to quantify emissions and establish benchmarks. However, the widespread adoption of LCA in GBRS is limited, posing challenges in accurately determining emissions. Energy benchmarking has been established to compare building performance, but the focus on embodied carbon benchmarking has been relatively narrow. The embodied stage cannot be ignored as buildings become more efficient, potentially sharing 50% of the life cycle carbon emissions. Embodied carbon benchmark is necessary to evaluate the environmental performance of buildings. Previous studies have relied on common building parameters to predict embodied carbon emissions. This approach leads to uncertainty due to variations in material consumption and the unique design and configuration of green buildings, which differ from typical structures. Therefore, it is crucial to statistically identify relevant parameters specific to embodied carbon and incorporate them into benchmarking models to enhance prediction accuracy. The present study concentrates on green-certified buildings and aims to develop a green building carbon index (GBCI) by integrating LCA and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The objectives encompass evaluating the embodied and operational carbon of green-certified office buildings across different rating levels and identifying environmental hotspots. Our results indicate that OC emissions constitute approximately 55-90% of the building's life cycle carbon emissions, while EC emissions account for the remaining 10-45%. It is worth noting that building rating levels do not correlate clearly with carbon emissions, indicating that higher-rated buildings do not necessarily have lower carbon footprints. The obtained LCA data is then integrated into the MLR model to establish the GBCI, featuring five ratings for both embodied and operational carbon. The research holds significance beyond its application in a Malaysian context, as it can serve as a deterministic and straightforward model for other countries and regions interested in developing similar indices.

O. Ilyunin*, O. Bezsonov, S. Rudenko, N. Serdiuk, S. Udovenko, O. Arsenyeva, A. Demirskyy, V. Zorenko, O. Semenenko Study of Neural Models Predicting Deposits in Plate Heat Exchangers PAM Ukraine show/hide abstract

The efficiency of plate heat exchangers (PHEs) included in process production lines depends on the cleanliness of the plate surface and directly affects the quality of the final product, fuel consumption of heat generating plants and carbon emissions. Scheduling routine maintenance for PHE cleaning increases the efficiency of heat exchange systems operation. Until recently, complex mathematical modeling was used to predict the value of the heat transfer coefficient after a certain period of operation of the heat exchanger and the point in time when the coefficient reaches the allowable limit, using systems of differential equations and matrices of heuristic coefficients, which required serious computing resources. This paper presents a study of the performance of neural network models for solving this problem: a standard recurrent neural network (RNN) with fading gradient and RNN with two hidden layers LSTM (long short-term memory) which can learn long-term dependencies, process sequential input data and use feedback loops to transfer information from one time step to another, and more adequately takes into account the impact of trends (temporal gradients) of input parameters on the output of the model. Training of neural networks was carried out on a data set of 1200 points synthesized near the reference points obtained by industrial measurements, showed the high coefficient of determination of LSTM-model R2 (accuracy) of the long-term forecast.

S. He, Z. Tang, R. Gu, Q. Wang, Y. Wu, T. Ma* Numerical Study of Two-Phase Flow in Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers Using Porous Medium Model HEHT China show/hide abstract

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of two-phase flow in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) is one of the focuses of scholars' research. In this paper, Mixture two-phase flow model and local thermal non-equilibrium conditions are used to simplify the two-phase flow layer in the PCHE to a porous medium for numerical study. The numerical mesh consists of a two-phase flow mesh and an overlapping solid mesh. The heat transfer between the two-phase flow mesh and the solid mesh is coupled by the source term in the energy equation. The numerical results show that within the laminar flow range of Re<1200, the error between the pressure drop calculated by the porous media model and the real structure is within 5%, and the heat transfer error is within 10%. In the turbulent range of Re>20000, the pressure drop error calculated by the porous media model is within 15%, and the heat transfer error is within 20%. At the same time, improving the number and length of heat transfer channels will make the prediction results of the porous media model have higher accuracy.

B. Wang* A Circular Economy Framework for Residential Districts Based on Hydrogen Energy Cycling CEI China show/hide abstract

The circular economy aims to maximize economic benefits with minimal resource and energy consumption and pollution emissions. This paper proposes a circular economy framework for residential districts based on hydrogen energy cycling. This cycle has natural gas-hydrogen blended as energy sources, uses hydrogen fuel cell for power generation to satisfy the energy demand, and recycle waste from the residential area to produce hydrogen. A P-graph model is developed to simulate and optimize this circular economy framework with objective functions, including economic and environmental benefits. The circular economy framework proposed in this paper finds a new way to utilize the natural gas-hydrogen blended to satisfy household energy demand and generate a close energy cycle. The case analysis proves that this framework contributes to sustainable resource utilization and reduces environmental footprints.

P.H. Lin, C.H. Ko*, S.H. Tu, C.J. Lin, F.C. Chang Leucaena Leucocephala and Montmorillonite Co-Pyrolysis Biochar: a Study on Physicochemical Properties and Stability BSWM Taiwan show/hide abstract

Leucaena leucocephala, an invasive toxic tree species, has threatened the survival of native plants in the Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan. Due to the small-to-medium diameter, the utilization and processing of L. leucocephala is highly restricted, while its discarding accelerates carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. Biochar, produced from the pyrolysis of biomass under an inert atmosphere, is considered an effective carbon sequestration technique with high stability important for long-term carbon storage and soil improvement. This study performed co-pyrolysis of L. leucocephala biomass and montmorillonite under inert conditions, aiming to investigate the effects of different pyrolysis temperatures and montmorillonite blending ratios on biochar yield and carbon retention. Results showed improved biochar yield and carbon retention with increasing montmorillonite addition. Thermogravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated enhanced stability of the modified biochars. The production of modified L. leucocephala biochar represents a promising technique for carbon dioxide sequestration and biochar stabilization, enabling the development of L. leucocephala utilization approaches.

T. Pan* Optimisation of a Hybrid PV Panels-Energy Storage-Grid in the Electricity Operation for Residents Based on the Resheat System REUS Czech Republic show/hide abstract

The CCHP system presents an optimal solution for addressing the energy crisis and alleviating environmental pressures. Previous studies of CCHP systems have integrated smaller scale PV panels and have also been dependent on the grid for power supply. However, its feasible to install a over-sized PV array capable of generating enough power and devise the energy storage to manage solar supply-demand mismatch. This study investigates cost optimisation within the RESHeat system at Limanowa’s demo site, employing an economic-energy generation trade-off and explores two scenarios simulate solar energy incentives. The results show that increasing the user’s selling price to the grid from 40 to 80 €/MWh encourages users to install nearly three times as many solar panels, contributing to reduce 30,397.19 kg CO2 eq. Despite higher PV costs, expenses reduce by 18 %, supported by grid electricity income. Subsidies aligning policies with environmental goals are recommended.

Á. Csiba-Herczeg*, M. Farkas-Kis, P. Csiba Fashion Dictator or Sustainable Thinker - Practical Challenges of Environmental Awareness CEI Hungary show/hide abstract

Rapid demographic growth, along with the associated resource needs and emissions, puts pressure on ecosystems. These are driving economic systems towards working on resource preservation. Linear business models (LBM) and this type of thinking represent a dead-end, while the circular economy (CE) stands as an alternative to the current linear economic paradigm. CE represents an economic model in which products, materials, and resources are designed and used to retain their value for as long as possible, generating minimal waste. The goal is for economic activities to minimize environmental burden and resource depletion, instead maximizing their efficiency.

Sustainability urges people to meet present needs without harming future generations by depleting resources. Many embrace environmental consciousness as a value system or lifestyle, encouraging them to reduce negative impacts on the environment. This might involve energy efficiency, waste reduction, use of renewable energy sources, and more. People often express this awareness through daily decisions, such as purchases or household activities. However, a question arises: Do they really believe on this, or is it just a trend, and they do it because they need to do it?

While many strive to appear environmentally conscious, the alignment between their appearance and actual actions isn't always consistent. Therefore, environmental gestures are superficial (e.g., using green cleaning products while engaging in excessive consumption) and many times personal interests and convenience take precedence over sustainability. Initiating real change can be challenging for individuals as it often demands significant efforts and sacrifices. As a result, some people might projecting an environmentally conscious image about themself, while making minimal changes to their habits.

Thinking in terms of the circular economy and sustainability requires sustained efforts for environmental protection and resource preservation. We need to see and identify these self-deceptions and consciously working on it. It's crucial for their actions to support a sustainable future rather than merely using these as labels or fashion.

C.H. Ko*, Y.S. Chou, B.Y. Yang, H.T. Chang, IC. Chen, P.H. Lin Impact of Pretreatment on Sun-Blocking Potentials of Lignocellulosic Biomass CEI Taiwan show/hide abstract

This study aims to investigate the relationship between the chemical composition, lignin content, particle size and UV protection property of different lignocellulosic biomass after different pretreatments, and assesses the potential of lignocellulosic biomass which with different pretreatments as a sunscreen agent. The experiment result shows that after delignification by acidified sodium chlorite method, the particle size of lignocellulosic biomass decreased and the UV absorbance value increased by sulfuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase hydrolysis. When the lignin content was about 20% to 45%, the lignin content had a greater impact on the UV absorbance value. The higher the lignin content, the higher the UV absorbance value and SPF value. On the contrary, when the lignin content was below 10%, the particle size had a greater impact on the UV absorbance value. The smaller the particle size, the higher the UV absorbance value and SPF value. The SPF value of lignocellulosic biomass particle can be increased from 1.34 to 5.08 after pretreatments, which can reach 17.99% of the SPF value of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with the same weight. The hot water extracts from lignocellulosic biomass also have great UV absorbance value, especially the hot water extract from PCB. Its SPF value is 22.40, which can reach 79.37% of the SPF value of TiO2 with the same weight. Therefore, both the lignocellulosic biomass particles and hot water extracts in this study have the potential to be applied to sunscreen agents.

C.H. Ko, C.K. Chien, B.Y. Yang, F.C. Chang*, P.H. Lin, P.H. Lin Biomaterials in Starch-Based Greaseproof Paper Coating BSWM Taiwan show/hide abstract

To reduce environmental pollution and resource waste, environmentally friendly materials have gained international attention. Paper-based materials not only possess good mechanical properties but also have the inherent advantages of being lightweight and environmentally friendly, making them potential alternatives to traditional plastic packaging. In this study, various proportions of bio-based materials, microcrystalline cellulose ( MCC ), cellulose nanocrystals ( CNC ), cellulose nanofibers ( CNF ), lignin nanoparticles ( LNPs ), and nanoclay kaolinite ( NCK ), were mixed with the optimized concentration of starch coating to develop the composite coatings, which were then applied to paper surfaces to evaluate their grease resistance, water resistance, mechanical properties, and optical properties, aiming to determine the optimal coating formulation. The results showed that lower concentrations of coatings are hard to uniformly apply to the paper surface, with OS10 and OS15 exhibiting poor grease resistance and water resistance. OS20 demonstrated better grease resistance and water resistance, thus the concentration of OSA starch coatings was set at 20 wt%. The subsequent experiments showed that the particle size of cellulose materials has no significant impact on the grease resistance and water resistance of coated paper but has a more notable effect on the mechanical properties. Furthermore, compared to the paper coated with starch coating, the addition of CNF, CNC, and LNPs improves the grease resistance and mechanical properties of coated paper, but excessive addition has a negative impact on water resistance and mechanical properties. Among them, CNF3 exhibits the best water resistance and grease resistance, with an increase in sizing degree of 18.07%, and an increase in grease resistance from 9 to 10, demonstrating the potential of this formulation for application as a greaseproof paper coating and food packaging material.

B. Eisinger Balassa*, L. Buics, L. Buics The Potential of the P-Graph for Optimising Public Service Processes – a Structured Literature Review PAM Hungary show/hide abstract

The P-graph (Process Graph) is a mathematical model used mainly in process engineering and optimization of industrial systems. The model is used to identify the relationships between processes, the optimal allocation of resources, and critical paths and nodes. By using P-graphs, companies can predict and prevent problems in processes, increasing efficiency and reducing operational costs. Because of its flexibility, the model can be applied to a wide range of applications, from production processes to supply chain management.

In this paper, a structured literature review is presented on the potential of applying P-graph to public service processes. Several methods are known to optimise public service processes, but their effectiveness is questionable. The application of P-graph has the potential to introduce a new method and approach on the field of public service process optimization. Overall, the use of P-graphs contributes significantly to the modernisation of process management and to the support of decision making processes.

L. He* Optimal Allocation in Response to Watershed Water Pollutant Emissions and Ecological Compensation Funds Under Uncertainty WM China show/hide abstract

Exploring the relationship between water environmental economic policies and the improvement of water environmental quality is crucial for promoting the establishment of a long-term ecological civilization mechanism in watersheds. This paper explores the research on optimized allocation in response to uncertain conditions of watershed water pollutant emissions and ecological compensation funds, which involves multiple stakeholders, hierarchical levels, and time periods. It outlines a two-layer optimization model with the upper-level decision-makers pursuing the minimization of the overall watershed water environmental risk factor as the objective, and the lower-level decision-makers, represented by the watershed management committee, pursuing the maximization of fair allocation of ecological compensation funds for the watershed. Constraints are set based on the upper limits of water resource utilization, the minimum water environmental quality standards, and the ecological protection redlines. The paper utilizes the satisfaction bi-level interactive method to solve the model and employs adjustable robust optimization methods to address uncertainty issues. Finally, the paper provides an empirical verification of the model through the control of total COD and NH3-N water pollutant emissions in the Tuojiang River Basin. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the optimization model. It shows that strengthening the implementation of the watershed water environmental ecological compensation system and pursuing diversified development contribute to improving water quality in the watershed. Compared to one-level optimization models, the bi-level response optimization model achieved a total reduction of 4411 tons of COD emissions and 233 tons of NH3-N emissions within three periods in the Tuojiang River Basin.

J. Kucerik*, M. Brtnický, J. Fojt, P. Procházková, M. Trojan, J. Holátko, N. Palucha Biodegradable Bioplastics: Their Pros and Cons from the Environmental Perspective SM Czech Republic show/hide abstract

Biodegradable bioplastics (BBs) are developed and applied as greener and more sustainable alternatives to conventional plastics. Bioplastics production is based either on oil or biomass (bio-based), preferably biomass or organic waste and by-products. The most frequently used bioplastics include polylactic acid (PLA), polyalkanoates (PHB, PHBV…), modified starch, polybutylene succinate (PBS), polykaprolakton (PCL) or polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT).

Bioplastics are used mainly in packaging (ca 48 %, in total 1.07 million tonnes in 2022), but they are gradually used also in other applications including cosmetics, electronics, automotive, agriculture and textiles. Currently, their waste management technology includes almost exceptionally biological recycling, i.e. composting or biodegradation in soil whereas other recycling methods, e.g. chemical recycling, are applied rarely.

Nevertheless, according to our results, the recommendation to use the BBs as greener alternatives of conventional plastics is not based on a though research data. The production price of most BBs is still higher comparing to conventional plastics, their processability is frequently problematic (melting and degradation temperatures are close, mechanical properties are sometimes worse comparing to conventional plastics, they need higher content of specific additives…), their biodegradation takes place only under specific conditions (temperature, number and type of organisms, moisture, pH, nutrients content) and their production carbon trace and influence on the environmental compartments and biota are largely unknown.  

Our team is focused on the effect of microplastics and microbioplastics on the environment. In this contribution we aim to advocate the view that the biodegradability of plastics should be a property of the product used during its lifetime but not at the end of life. We will present several examples that include a negative effect of poly-3-hydroxybutyrates particles and biodegradation on long-term soil organic carbon storage, soil desiccation, plant growth and aquatic plants stress and spreading the pathogens to illustrate this view.  

Y. Song, S.J. Kim, J.K. Kim* Process Design and Optimization of Membrane-Based CO2 Capture for Process Industries CP Korea, Republic of show/hide abstract

Membrane-based technology can be effective for the small- or medium-scale capture of CO2 emitted from process industries, in which multiple CO2-containing flue gases are generated in a distributed manner. Also, the membrane-based capture becomes advantageous for treating gases with high CO2 partial pressure. In order to fully materialize these technical benefits, it is important to systematically examine design interactions existing for the multi-stage membrane network as well as evaluate rigorously economic trade-off between capital cost (e.g. membrane areas) and operating cost (e.g. electricity required for compression). Such investigation is not straightforward because the multiple modules should be used for achieving high recovery of CO2 and the integration of membrane separation with a liquefaction unit is required for satisfying a high purity CO2 product. In this presentation, the optimization framework for membrane-based CO2 capture systems is first addressed, which is then followed by how the optimization method can be effectively applied to minimize CO2 capture cost. Case study is presented to understand the techno-economic impact of various design parameters and operating characteristics of flue gases.


This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2019R1A2C2002263, No. 2022R1A5A1032539).

L.F. Chuah*, S. Yusup Cavitation-Enhanced Methyl Ester Production: a Greener Path to Renewable Fuels CP Malaysia show/hide abstract

Methyl ester is a renewable fuel that is good for the environment and can be used again without negatively impacting the planet. Produced via transesterification of a defined oil to methanol ratio using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst, it is non-toxic and produces fewer sulfur oxides and greenhouse gases. The best methyl ester conversion was achieved at a cavitation number of around 0.3, according to the findings of pilot plant tests using a variety of orifice plate designs. In terms of conversion, time, and yield efficiency, Plate 2 with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter fared the best. In approximately 15 minutes at 2 bar intake pressure, it turned 96.5% of used cooking oils into methyl ester. Producing fuel to specifications such as EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 in a pilot-scale hydrodynamic cavitation reactor unit is clearly feasible.

S. Werle* Municipal Solid Waste Reduction Through Oxidative Liquefaction Process BSWM Poland show/hide abstract

Intense challenges associated with the management of escalating concentrations of municipal solid waste (MSW) necessitate the exploration of innovative approaches that can provide both high efficiency and sustainability. The presented work aims to assess the effectiveness of an innovative technique, oxidative liquefaction, in reducing MSW and predominantly generating volatile fatty acids (VFAs), their methyl esters, and other compounds such as phenol or methyl benzoate.

Throughout the implementation of the oxidative liquefaction process, the impacts of reaction temperature, waste-to-liquid ratio, and oxidant concentration were investigated according to a detailed experimental plan. To structure the experimental framework comprehensively, two distinct design methodologies, central composite design and fractional factorial design, were integrated.

We tested three levels for each reaction parameter, including temperatures of 200°C, 250°C, and 300°C; waste-to-liquid ratios of 3%, 5%, and 7%; and oxidant concentrations of 30%, 45%, and 60%. These tests resulted in a substantial reduction in the total weight of the solid sample, ranging from 50% to 95%.

For a comprehensive analysis of the liquid products obtained after the oxidative liquefaction process, Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) was employed. This analytical method allowed the identification of chemical fractions and quantification of VFAs and other compounds present in the products. Based on the results obtained from GC-FID, the carbon conversion efficiency from solid MSW to liquid products will be calculated, highlighting the potential of the applied chemical process.

Additionally, energy consumption for each experiment was calculated, falling within the range of 0.7 to 1.4 kWh.


This paper was prepared within the frame of the OPUS-21 project “Oxidative liquefaction of plastic waste. Experimental research with multidimensional data analysis using chemometric methods” financed by the National Science Center (NCN), Poland. Project registration number 2021/41/B/ST8/01770. 


H.A. Er, S.R. Wan Alwi*, Z. Abdul Manan A New Graphical Tool for Design of a Heat Exchanger Storage Network for Non-Continuous Processes HIES Malaysia show/hide abstract

This paper proposes a new methodology to synthesize Heat Exchanger Storage Networks (HESN) of non-continuous processes using the batch Stream Temperature Enthalpy Plot (batch STEP). The batch STEP adapts and extends the STEP tool for the Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) synthesis and retrofit of continuous processes. By enabling the visualisation of individual process streams mapping, the batch STEP provides valuable insights for flexible selective matching of process heat sources and sinks, as well as the operating temperatures of the Heat Recovery Loops (HRLs) in HESN. The methodology considers heat losses from heat storage tanks and the trade-off between heat recovery and capital cost investment in order to produce cost-effective and practical HESN. Application of the proposed methodology on an illustrative case study resulted in hot utility savings of 78.8% and cold utility savings of 77.9% via a HESN with simpler heat recovery network design. This work is expected to pave the way for the development of insight-based graphical tool for heat recovery network synthesis and retrofit involving HESN of non-continuous processes. 

S. Zhang*, N. Zhang Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Integration of Soec and H2-O2 Combustion Against CCS and Electrochemical Conversion in Ethylene Production CP United Kingdom show/hide abstract

Ethylene production requires much heat, which is usually supplied by fossil energy. To cope with the global warming, the zero-carbon emission technologies are important. Therefore, an integration of solid oxide electrolyser cells and hydrogen-oxygen combustion was proposed to achieve net-zero carbon emission. This new method was compared with electrochemical conversion from CO2 to ethylene and CCUS pathways. The life-cycle assessment shows that the global warming potential from cradle to gate of the proposed integration is only 1.69×1010 kg CO2 eq., which is only 79.34% of CCS (2.69×1010). The oxy-combustion makes the eutrophication potential, particulate matter formation potential, and photochemical oxidants creation potential of green hydrogen lower than CCS, which the air combustion fails to achieve. 

J. Tang, Q. Li, S. Werle, H. Yu* A Novel Self-Condensation Liquid Carbon Dioxide Energy Storage System Integrated with High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage ES Denmark show/hide abstract

    Energy storage technologies play an important role in stablizing the large-scale fluctuating renewable energy. Liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) energy storage (LCES) systems are a promising energy storage solution due to their high storage density and geographical independence. In a conventional LCES system, two main issues should be considered: one is the difficulty of condensing carbon dioxide during the discharging stage, and another is the need for an additional thermal energy storage system to absorb the heat of compression during the charging stage. To address the above limitations, this paper proposes an innovative self-condensation LCES system, wherean ejector is utilized to condense the CO2, and an electrical high-temperature thermal energy storage (HTES) is employed to raise the CO2 temperature entering the turbine and cut the compressed heat storage cycle.

    During the charging process, a constant share of excess renewable power is used to pump the liquid CO2 stored in the low-pressure storage tank (LPST) to high-pressure and then stored in the high-pressure storage tank (HPST). Meanwhile, the excess fluctuating electricity is efficiently converted into thermal energy and stored in the HTES. During the discharging process, the liquid CO2 released from the HPST flows through the recuperator where it is preheated by the exhaust gas of the turbine. Then, CO2 is heated up to the maximum temperature in the HTES. After that, the CO2 expands in the turbine for power generation, and then passes the recuperator and drives the ejector in turn. In the ejector condensing cycle, the exhaust acts as the primary flow to entrain the secondary flow from the sub-compressor. These two streams undergo sequential mixing and diffusing actions within the ejector. The mixed flow leaving the ejector is cooled in the precooler and then expands into a gas-liquid flow with a throttle valve, before being directed to the separator to separate the two-phase flow. The saturated vapor is directed into the sub-compressor. Meanwhile, the saturated liquid is returned to the LPTS to complete the entire system’s operation.

    The results show that the proposed system can achiev energy density (ED) and roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 18.35 kWh/m3 and 43.77%, respectively. Moreover, the parametric analysis indicates that both the higher turbine inlet temperature and pressure are beneficial for the ED and RTE of the LCES system,while a higher turbine back pressure will lower the system performance. An increase oflow-pressure storage temperature will enhancethe system RTE but reduce the ED. Moreover, there exists an optimal ejector back pressure for the system to achieve the best performance. In conclusion, the proposed LCES system is not only dynamically scalable to meet changing load-balancing requirements, but also extends the operating scope without the requirement of complex cold storage devices or external low-temperature heat sinks.

K. Lin, A. Xia, Y. Huang, X. Zhu, X. Zhu, K. Cai, Z. Wei, Q. Liao* Effect of Wall Structures and Peristalsis on Glucose Production in a Bionic Microreactor Loaded with Cellulase RCE China show/hide abstract

Termite is the most systemically integrated species in nature with a high conversion capacity of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the synergistic effect between intestinal peristalsis and surface structure on mass transfer and catalytic conversion in the termite gut is still unclear, and clarification of this relationship is beneficial to better guide the design of highly efficient catalytic microreactors.

In this study, catalytic microreactors with fold-like or villus-like structures on the surface are modeled in a two-dimensional axisymmetric coordinate system. The radius and length of the microreactor are 0.3 mm and 2 mm. The rectangle with a length and width of 0.04 mm and 0.02 mm was regarded as a villus-like structure. Semi-ellipse with a long and short axis of 0.1 mm and 0.04 mm was defined as a fold-like structure. Cellulase is uniformly immobilized on the surface, which is subjected to periodic peristalsis by the application of an external force, allowing the pass-through cellobiose to be degraded to glucose in a continuous flow.

With a fold-like structure thickness of 0.02 mm and a villus-like structure spacing D of 0.24 mm, the glucose production reached 740.4 mg/L in 20 s, which showed a 51.6% improvement over the microreactor with no surface structure. This value was also 37.1% and 10.0% higher than the microreactor with a single fold-like or villus-like structure, respectively. The setting of the villus-like structure effectively enhanced the mass transfer between the wall and the main flow zone, but the overly dense spacing would lead to an ineffective catalytic zone. The interspersing of fold-like structures between the villus-like structures can both increase the specific surface area and alleviate the above phenomenon.

Moreover, after further applying a 45% amplitude of peristalsis, the glucose productivity in 8 s was enhanced by 16.5%, but the glucose concentration in 20 s was close to the case with no peristalsis. This suggests that wall peristalsis indeed improves mass transfer and catalysis within the microreactor, but the enhancement using peristalsis only was still limited after forming a distinct product layer at the surface. If the same peristalsis was performed in a microreactor with no structure, the glucose concentration in 20 s was only 520.5 mg/L, which is 29.7% lower than that in the microreactor with villus-like and fold-like structures together. This implies that an effective synergy existed between the setting of surface structures and wall peristalsis, which is conducive to efficient catalysis in the microreactor.

Q. Zhou, J. Zhang*, X. Zhu, A. Xia, Y. Huang, X. Zhu, Q. Liao Kinetics of Hydrothermal Conversion of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa to Prepare Carbon Dots SM China show/hide abstract

Microalgae-based carbon dots (CDs) were obtained through the hydrothermal conversion of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa (CP). The reaction kinetic model of hydrothermal multiple-product (solid products hydrochar (HC), organic products bio-oil (BO), nano-carbon materials soluble in aqueous products (CDs), and other phase products (OP, composed of other aqueous products and volatile products)) was established using the lumped parameter method. CP-based CDs, approximately 3 nm in size, were obtained, exhibiting the maximum emission fluorescence with a wavelength of 420 nm at an absorption wavelength of 340 nm. The highest fluorescence quantum yield was 5.53% at a reaction temperature of 230 ℃ and a retention time of 60 minutes. Elemental analysis revealed a reduction in nitrogen and sulfur contents within HC with increasing reaction time, which might be caused by doping nitrogen and sulfur on CDs. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that CP decomposition occurred in three distinct stages, encompassing temperature ranges of 30-150 ℃, 150-450 ℃, and 450-900 ℃, respectively. Notably, the second stage emerged as the primary decomposition phase, accounting for a mass loss of 77.01%. TGA of the HC showed that the content of carbohydrates and proteins rapidly decreases after the reaction begins, indicating that they are the raw materials for CDs. Kinetic analyses indicated that the higher temperature accelerated the microalgae hydrolysis, yielding more CDs. HC is difficult to be generated from OP and BO. The fastest interconversion reaction rate between the CDs and the OP products was observed at the experimental temperature, and the maximum value of the average apparent activation energy was 66.29 kJ. The lumped parameter method shows an excellent fit to the experimental results.

S. Wang, Y. Dong* Life Cycle Assessment of the Chocolate Industry: a Systematic Review CP China show/hide abstract

Chocolate is a popular food product due to its unique taste and flavor, mood-enhancing properties, and cultural significance. The life cycle of chocolate consists of a few processes that can lead to negative environmental impacts. In this study, we conducted a systematic review on twenty-five existing life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of chocolate. It is found that two life cycle stages of chocolate have most significant environmental impacts, i.e., raw material production and chocolate manufacturing. Milk power, sugar and cocoa derivatives are found to be the dominant contributors to the emissions. By comparing different chocolate products, dark chocolate demonstrates the lowest greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the highest is milk chocolate. For the products with chocolate ingredients, it is found that biscuits generate the lowest greenhouse gas emissions, while chocolate confectionery products have the largest emissions. Based on the research outcomes, suggestions are provided for the industry to improve the environmental performance of the chocolate industry. As one of the first review studies of LCA of chocolate, this study can provide an indispensable reference for the industry to understand the environmental sustainability, hence to promote the sustainable development of the industry from a life cycle perspective.

J. Chen, Z. Li, Y. Dong*, Y. Zhao Life Cycle Assessment of High-Performance Concrete with High Elastic Modulus SM China show/hide abstract

Massive construction requires large amount of concrete, leading to severe environmental degradations and irreversible depletion of raw materials. High-performance concrete with a high modulus of elasticity, also called high modulus concrete (HMC), has been increasingly adopted in buildings, in particular in high-rise buildings that can meet the challenge of substantial increasing population globally. However, there has been limited study focusing on the life cycle environmental performance of HMC. This study aims at comparing HMC with traditional concrete for a case study of a beam for a high-rise building. Five scenarios are conducted corresponding to five concrete types, namely C45, C60, C80, HMC and ultra-high modulus concrete (UHMC). It is found that material consumed in HMC and UHMC beams can be substantially saved, and the environmental impacts for all the studied categories are considerably decreased. This study contributes to the knowledge of environmental performance of HMC and UHMC, and the research outcomes can provide a solid base for the industry to select environmental beneficial concrete.

C.H. Ko, P.C. Hung, S.H. Tu, C.J. Lin, F.C. Chang* Application of Nanocellulose Packaging Materials for Fruit Preservation SM Taiwan show/hide abstract

Taiwan abounds in many kinds of fruits and has become an important fruit exporting country. The ethylene released by the fruit in a confined space cannot diffuse to the outside, which will accelerate the ripening of the fruit. Therefore, restraining the production and diffusion of ethylene becomes the key to fruit preservation. This study formulates different proportions of cellulose materials-including Avicel, Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), and Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-hydrophobically modified products of cellulose materials mentioned above, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into coatings. The properties of the coating show that the barrier performance of the smaller cellulose particle size is better. The higher the interface potential, the better the suspension degree of the nanofiber material and the reduction of agglomeration. The properties of the paper show that the cellulose content is about 10-20% to the best and has the lowest gas penetration ability. The transmittance has a lower performance. Compared with copier paper coated with PVA alone, CNC120 B has the best barrier performance, with air permeability reduced by 39.4%, water vapor transmission rate by 18.3%, and ethylene penetration by 16.7-77.8%, the weight loss rate of bananas was reduced by 25.9%, and the sugar content was also reduced by 17.2%, indicating that the nanocellulose coating prepared in this study has a tendency to slow down the ripening of fruits and has the potential to be applied to fruit preservation packaging materials.

A. Vujanovic*, E. Myers, T. Ošlovnik, J. Puhar, D. Schober, K. Schuhen The Future of Clean Water: Assessing Environmental and Economic Viability of Advanced Treatment Options Targeting Micropollutants and Microplastics Removal in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants WM Slovenia show/hide abstract

Microplastics and other harmful micropollutants have been found extensively in water environments (Franco et al., 2021). Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are identified as major sources of contamination from micropollutants and microplastics, directly releasing these particles into the environment.

While modern tertiary treatment plants can eliminate suspended solids, pathogens, and nutrients from wastewater, they are generally not designed to effectively remove the majority of micropollutants and microplastics. Recognizing this, there's a move toward requiring quaternary treatment options to remove micropollutants in many WWTPs within the EU. Addressing the challenge of removing micropollutants and microplastics effectively requires a new approach – fourth stage cleaning step plus. The study under discussion is focused on pilot scale systems for this fourth step, implemented at a German WWTP (Sturm et al., 2022).

Microplastic removal is approached by using Wasser 3.0 PE-X® technology, based on clump & skim methodology (Sturm et al., 2021). This innovative approach combines physical agglomeration and water-induced chemical fixation with organosilanes. The resulting agglomerates float and can be easily skimmed off the water's surface, avoiding the need for filters and thereby saving energy and costs. Fluorescent dye detection monitors microplastic levels for removal efficiency assessment and for process control (Sturm et al., 2023).

Evaluating the feasibility of a fourth treatment step for micropollutant removal requires a comprehensive sustainability assessment, encompassing environmental, health, and economic aspects, along with adaptability to different treatment plant scales and potential for process improvements. While LCAs have been applied to WWTP design and operation, assessing advanced treatment technologies' environmental impact, including micropollutants and microplastics, remains challenging due to methodological constraints and data limitations.

The study's economic and environmental analysis results offer insights into optimizing the implemented technology. This includes a comprehensive view of wastewater treatment stages, encompassing the conventional three-step process and the newly added fourth step for micropollutant and microplastics removal. Future work could involve data on installed PV panels to contribute toward EU directives aiming for energy-neutral WWTPs.

Y. Cao, L. Tang, W. Li, M. Zeng* Discussion on the Heat Transfer and Flow Noise in the Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers with Different Baffles HEHT China show/hide abstract

Heat exchangers play an essential role in modern industry, especially shell-and-tube heat exchangers, which are widely used in the chemical industry, nuclear power, industrial waste heat recovery and many other fields. Enhancing the fluid disturbance and increasing the fluid flow can obviously strengthen the heat transfer process, but the resistance loss and noise level will also increase. The study of the heat transfer and flow noise in the heat exchangers is very important for mastering the noise characteristics, reducing the noise radiation and avoiding the acoustic resonance. In this paper, the heat transfer and flow noise in the shell-and-tube heat exchangers with different baffles are numerically investigated. The results show that with the increase of flow rate, the pressure drops, Nusselt numbers, and outlet sound pressure increase for continuous helical and segmental baffle heat exchangers. And the helical baffles have a great advantage of lower resistance performance and much lower flow noise. The helical baffle heat exchangers with β = 40° has the optimal comprehensive performance considering the heat transfer capacity, resistance loss and noise level.

P. Molnár*, B. Lukács, A. Suta, Á. Tóth Linking Financial and Sustainability Aspects of Energy Use Through Gri Standards and SDG Targets EN Hungary show/hide abstract

In response to the urgent need for a comprehensive approach to reporting that integrates financial and sustainability dimensions, this study introduces a novel methodology. Building on the synergy between Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) standards, Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets and environmental, social and governance (ESG) considerations, the framework provides a structured methodology for organisations to articulate their contributions to global sustainability goals. Through the strategic incorporation of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) tags, this approach not only streamlines reporting processes, but also lays the foundation for advanced analytics. Empirical findings from a diverse sample of companies highlights the need for improved accuracy, efficiency and relevance of reporting. In addition, the study underscores the broader societal benefits of harmonising financial and sustainability reporting practices, enhancing stakeholder trust and enabling more informed decision making. As such, this research is advancing the discourse on sustainable finance and reporting, providing practical implications for practitioners and contributing to a more sustainable future.

P. Hršak, J. Baleta*, J. Wang, C. Zheng Overview of Physical Methods for CO2 Capture IPRI Croatia show/hide abstract

According to the 2015 U.N. Climate Change Conference in Paris, it is imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 40 to 70 % by 2050. Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) refers to an emerging group of technologies for reducing CO2 emissions from large industrial sources or fossil-fuelled power plants. The main technologies used for CO2 capture are: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion carbon capture. Post-combustion technology is the most widely used and involves separation of CO2 from flue gas by applying chemical interactions, such as absorption, adsorption and chemical looping, physical separation by absorption, adsorption, and cryogenic separation, membrane separation or use of micro-algae. Physical adsorption based post-combustion method is intensively studied due to the lower energy demands and higher efficiency. Various porous materials are used as physical adsorbents: carbonaceous materials, zeolites, mesoporous silica materials and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs).

Some of the aforementioned methods, like chemical absorption, have already been implemented in the chemical production industry, and others, while holding much future promise, are still in development (e.g. physical adsorption). Since 2017 there has been a growth of integrated CCUS units around the world, the number of which in is currently 27. It is yet to be determined which of the newer carbon capture methods are truly prosperous on a large scale. That’s why carbon capture from large point sources demands continued research, development and demonstration. The aim of this work is to investigate possible ways of reducing costs, improving the efficiency and energy demand of CO2 capture and expanding the area of its implementation.

M. Nowak-Ocłoń*, P. Cisek, P. Ocłoń, K. Kaczmarski, M. Rerak, A. Vallati, J. Zielonka, A. Pawłowski Mathematical Model for the Resheat System Design REUS Poland show/hide abstract

This paper presents numerical procedures for analysing and selecting components for RESHeat systems. The RESHeat system uses Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to produce heat and electricity. The developed software aims at the optimal selection of the system components and their parameters based on the specific constraints of the end-user. In addition, the procedures include a user-defined economic analysis of the system. The calculation's accuracy is validated by comparing the results obtained with the actual design RESHeat demo sites located in Kraków, Limanowa (Poland), and Palombara Sabina (Italy).

Additionally, the results obtained from the numerical procedures developed are compared with those obtained from calculations using commercial software to verify the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison shows that the results obtained from the RESHeat software are acceptable.

A. Suta*, Á. Tóth, L. Kedves, R. Rickards Extraction and Comparative Analysis of Climate-Related Financial Information from Digital Annual Reports CP Hungary show/hide abstract

The sustainability performance of large companies undoubtedly impacts their financial statements. In addition to the European Commission's new regulatory measures, such as the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD), Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) performance metrics greatly influence specific reporting items that investors seek to monitor in order to make informed decisions. In this study, we analyzed the financial statements of large, public listed companies that are required to disclose certain items under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). To conduct the analysis, we utilized a custom technology pipeline to process standard “ESEF” and “XBRL” financial statements available in digital format. The financial categories explicitly discussed in previous literature (e.g., materiality assessment, impairment and expense related to assets, fair value measurement, provisions, and contingent liabilities) were identified in the XBRL taxonomy, and their values were then examined for several companies. The research has produced a novel result by analyzing previous theoretical assumptions on European financial data, which can be applied to a selection of companies or industries.

Á. Tóth*, A. Suta, O. Pintes, F. Szauter Evaluation of Green Investments Among Automotive Companies Using Digital Reporting PAM Hungary show/hide abstract

Automotive companies, with their high production volumes and extensive supply networks, are one of the main drivers of the economy. Over the past decade, these companies' business practices have shifted towards a focus on environmental sustainability due to regulatory constraints and shareholder expectations. Achieving these goals often requires a significant capital investment in green projects, which, if successful, can result in financial advantages such as subsidies and tax savings, as well as reducing primary CO2 emissions. As a result, manufacturers have a responsibility to report on their green investments and their performance in their annual reports. In the evolving system of financial and sustainability accounting, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) only indirectly specify these disclosure requirements, but analysis of the growing Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) reporting content has great potential. In the research, in addition to traditional annual reports, we examined new digital reports that utilize the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) format for quantifying and qualifying the environmental impact of investments in European companies. The findings are anticipated to enhance the literature on connecting financial and sustainability metrics.


Z. Pusztai, P. Kőrös, F. Szauter, F. Friedler* Measurement-Based Resistance Force Modelling PAM Hungary show/hide abstract

In this study, a comprehensive perspective on measurement-based modeling of resistance forces is provided. The experimental steps taken to quantify the resistance forces experienced by a lightweight vehicle are outlined. The modeling approach presented here is particularly well-suited for describing low resistance values, which can be challenging to model accurately using standard methods. The primary vehicle motion states, including straight-line motion and cornering, are covered in our investigation, making it highly applicable to optimization problems. These measurements were conducted in both a dedicated proving ground and a laboratory environment. In addition to describing our methodology, a model implementation is also proposed. Emphasis is placed on the significance of considering changes in resistance forces over time, as they can substantially influence the outcome of optimization processes.

S. Gert, M. Sadenova*, N. Beisekenov Analysis and Modelling of the Process of Improving the Method of Obtaining Beryllium-Based Composites Suitable for Space Optics PAM Kazakhstan show/hide abstract

Scientific provisions for improving the method of obtaining beryllium-based composites suitable for space optics have been developed. Strict requirements for composite material operating in space conditions considerably complicate the technological scheme of production by increasing the number of operations, intermediates and turns in these schemes. A complex of physicochemical and structural-mechanical investigations of the initial raw material and experimental samples obtained on its basis has been carried out. According to the conducted researches and obtained results the most suitable material for composite creation with the purpose of its further application in space optics is beryllium oxide powder of B-2 grade. A complete technological scheme for the production of composite suitable for space optics based on beryllium oxide micropowder has been created.

The scheme provides the possibility of obtaining composite material of various configurations and certain properties that meet the stringent requirements for materials used in space rocket instrumentation. At this stage it is relevant to perform analysis and modelling of the process of obtaining elements of space telescopes.

It is known that copper, aluminium, gold and silver reflect about 100% of infrared radiation with a wavelength of more than 700 nm, but unlike other materials, only gold does not succumb to oxidation and corrosion. The main advantages of using thin films of gold as a functional material used in space optics are: reducing light scattering, increasing bandwidth, reducing the effects of static electricity and creating a protective surface against damage. The gold colour is highly reflective, meaning it allows the telescope to capture more light. This requirement is particularly relevant for space telescopes designed to observe distant and dim objects. The durability of this material is due to the fact that gold does not oxidise or rust, which makes it a promising material for spacecraft operating in extreme conditions. Modern analysis and modelling techniques were used in the process of developing the process flow diagram. Particular attention was paid to modelling based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) for predicting optimal coating parameters, as well as for analysing their structural and optical properties. CNN, due to its unique structure, allowed to identify complex dependencies and correlations between various parameters of the production process and the quality of the final product. The use of CNN made it possible to refine and optimise the process of coating thin films of gold on ceramic substrates, which ultimately contributed to the production of a composite material that meets the highest requirements of rocket and space instrument engineering.

J. Sun, H. Yu*, R. Zhou, L. Wang Utilizing Hydro Turbines for Energy Retrieval from Cooling Water Systems IPRI Denmark show/hide abstract

Circulating cooling water systems are widely used in petrochemical and other industries. A cooling water system requires a large amount of power to send water to coolers installed at high platform. In spite of pressure drop, most power is not consumed, but turns to potential energy. The potential energy will turn back to pressure once cooling water goes down from high, but the pressure is wasted in current cooling water system. Currently, circulating water systems have great potential for energy and water conservation.

This article conducts an energy analysis of the pump network of the circulating water system, which mainly analyzes the energy consumption of adjusting the throttling pressure of the heat exchanger inlet and outlet valves. Part of the valve throttling is to adjust to meet the flow distribution requirements of each parallel branch pipeline, resulting in an increase in the total pressure drop of the pipeline, a waste of system power, and a waste of energy. In this work, the article transforms the pump network of the circulating water system and raises the height of the total confluence point to the same height as the cooler with the highest required pressure head in the pipeline. The pipeline flow distribution is controlled by the cross-sectional area of each branch pipeline. The valve opening can be increased compared to before, reducing pipeline resistance loss and energy loss. Hydro turbines are used to recover surplus pressure. A hydraulic turbine is installed next to the motor of the cooling tower fan to recover the remaining pressure energy.

In the analysis case, Aspen Plus is used to simulate the optimized pump network structure. Compare the simulated pipeline pressure drop results with the actual production original pump structure. After the transformation, the pressure drop of the pipeline is reduced and the energy consumption is reduced. The backwater pressure of the cooling tower can be recovered, which can save 950,501.18 RMB in electricity and energy every year, and the energy saving effect is significant. Therefore, it is highly economical to transform the circulating water pump network and install a turbine to recover residual pressure. It has great positive significance for energy saving and consumption reduction of the entire circulating water pump network and increasing production income.

R. Krecht*, Á. Ballagi Resilience Analysis of an Automated Mobile Robot for Traffic Diversion Element Manipulation PAM Hungary show/hide abstract

As urbanization and population growth continues, the efficient management of traffic and infrastructure maintenance has become a paramount concern. Traditional methods of traffic diversion element placement, relying heavily on cars and human labor, not only incur significant economic costs but also have detrimental environmental impacts. There are novel approaches for traffic management and traffic diversion element manipulation using automated robotic platforms, but these solutions can only profoundly manifest their benefits if they are reliable and resilient enough to work with minor intervention. Our work presents the resilience analysis of an automated robot platform prototype designed for the manipulation of traffic diversion elements. Our research explores the potential of these robotic systems to improve both the efficiency of traffic management and the environmental sustainability of urban infrastructure maintenance. We assess the platform's resilience through mathematical modelling. Additionally, we highlight the environmentally responsible aspects of robotic platform utilization in traffic management. By reducing the need for cars and trucks in material transportation and labor, these platforms significantly reduce the environmental footprint. The resulting reduction in carbon emissions, combined with sustained economic benefits, positions automated robot platforms as a promising and environmentally conscientious solution for urban infrastructure management.

Y.K. Cheah*, R.D. Plata Manjarrez, J. Bonet-Ruiz, A.E. Plesu Popescu Assessing Environmental Impact Across the Pha Biopolymer Production Lifecycle PAM Spain show/hide abstract

Waste-to-energy conversion stands as a prominent strategy for mitigating carbon footprint. Research has identified a viable way for producing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from wastewater sludge, a byproduct of wastewater treatment plants. However, some proposed techniques raise environmental concerns, particularly due to their use of chemical compounds. This study evaluates the environmental implications of PHA production from municipal wastewater sludge, aiming to highlight potential reductions when compared to conventional plastics production. To achieve this objective, simulations were performed based on a biorefinery with a capacity to produce 250 tons of PHA annually. OpenLCA software was used to evaluate the environmental impact at various stages of this process. A pivotal discovery in this research is the substantial reduction in ecotoxicity achieved by substituting sodium hypochlorite with dimethyl carbonate during the PHA extraction process. This underscores the advantages of eco-friendly alternatives in plastic production. However, for PHA to surpass traditional plastics like low-density polyethylene (LDPE), transformations are needed like improving energy efficiency, optimal heat utilization, the integration of renewable energy sources, and more efficient liquid waste management. Within the suite of unit operations, the Accumulation Reactor, Acidogenic Fermentation, and Dryer stages emerge as primary drivers of environmental impact. These stages exert their influence predominantly through energy consumption, thus significantly affecting marine aquatic ecotoxicity, global warming, and acidification potential. The Accumulation Reactor, as a substantial energy consumer, necessitates immediate measures to reduce its carbon footprint, including energy conservation and process optimization. The Acidogenic Fermentation process, due to its energy-intensive nature, suggests that the adoption of energy-efficient practices and advanced fermentation techniques can enhance sustainability. Even though the Dryer stage exhibits lower energy intensity, it still holds a crucial role in environmental impact, highlighting the potential benefits of energy-efficient drying methodologies. In a previous study, Exergy assessment yielded divergent results, it would be likely due to the variations in fundamental calculations. Notably, in OpenLCA, flows such as acetic acid and butyric acid are deemed elementary and do not contribute to the environmental impact calculation.

Y. Li, Z. Li, X. Liu*, T. Li A Globalized Methodology of Energy-Saving Solar Greenhouse Design in High Latitudes SEP China show/hide abstract

Greenhouse vegetable production has a significant impact on the national economy, accounting for sixty percent of the total economic benefit of vegetable industries in high latitudes and cold regions. The majority of vegetables are perishable and cannot withstand storage and transport. Due to the cold winters in high latitudes, however, it is difficult to cultivate vegetables in the open field, resulting in a winter and spring vegetable off-season. The shortage of vegetables will have direct effects on people's health and indirect effects on the development of other industries. The year-round vegetable supply must rely on local overwintering production. The solar greenhouse, nevertheless, can reduce the negative environmental effects of open-field agriculture while improving the solar energy utilization rate, vegetable output, and vegetable quality. Currently, the majority of agricultural greenhouses across the world are heated greenhouses that consume a lot of energy. According to the United Nations, greenhouse heating accounts for 35% of the world's yearly agricultural energy consumption. Nevertheless, vegetables are supposed to be produced in an energy-saving solar greenhouse (ESSG) without additional heating throughout the cold winter. In comparison to heating greenhouses, ESSG saves an average of 373.13 t of standard coal per hectare annually. This is comparable to a reduction in emissions of 223.88 t of CO2, 2.69 t of SO2, and 3.51 t of NOx. The fight against climate change is now happening around the world, and researchers are very interested in how to save energy in agricultural greenhouses. For now though, ESSG has only been extensively implemented in China and has not been promoted globally. The fundamental barrier to globalization is the lack of clarity in structural design methodology.

Some countries, including Canada, Russia, South Korea, and others, have attempted to introduce ESSG into local use. Nevertheless, the majority of these attempts have not yielded satisfactory benefits. If any country in the globe simply copies the ESSG design in China, ignoring the structural compatibility according to local conditions, it will be easy to suffer freezing damage in the overwintering production. In actuality, the ESSG design varies depending on geographical location and climatic conditions. That being said, there is still no unified methodology that works in every region of the world. Azimuth, length, span, ridge height, back wall height, back roof horizontal projection, front roof angle, and front roof curve are the main structural parameters of the ESSG. Nevertheless, most researches on ESSG design only examine one parameter while ignoring the relationship between them. It is critical to clarify the value range of important structural characteristics in different countries and regions.

In light of this, this study establishes a globalized methodology for ESSG design, which is based on the theories of greenhouse energy balance and maximum solar energy interception. Moreover, it identifies the structural parameters that are specific to latitude and how they relate to each other. The results indicated that ESSG should have a span of 6 to 12 m. Excessive size would result in an overabundance of heat dissipation area, while insufficient size would result in inadequate cultivation space. The range of 3 to 7 m is the optimal ridge height. Too high will impact stability and heat preservation, while too low will affect inadequate light interception. The length of the front slope should be not less than the span. Then the length of back slope can be determined and it must not shade the crop. In order to minimize heat loss from the front roof and maintain efficient heat storage in the back wall, the angle of the back roof is determined by the solar altitude angle at the equinox. Taking the cultivation space inside the greenhouse and the maximum direct light interception into consideration, the front roof is composed of two circular arcs with different curvatures. It is based on the ideal roof angle at the true noon of the winter solstice and the direct light irradiation to the bottom of the rear wall. The greenhouse's length ought to exceed twice the amount of shadow that is possible during the summer solstice. The insulation screen is opened when the solar radiation gained by the front roof is greater than the heat loss. And the greenhouse azimuth depends on the local time of uncovering of the insulation. According to the ESSG design methodology, the span in the latitude range of 32°N to 37°N is recommended as 8 to 12 m. The range of values for the front slope angle is 28° to 32.8°. The back slope angle is 53.3° to 58.3°. The ridge height is 3.8 to 6.2 m. The back wall height is 2.3 to 3.6 m. And the back roof horizontal projection is 0.93 to 2.42 m. For the regions between 38°N to 43°N, the front slope angle ranges from 33.8° to 38.7°, while the back slope angle goes from 47.3° to 52.3°. The back wall height varies from 4.4 to 7 m, the ridge height from 2.7 to 4.26 m. And the back roof horizontal projection ranges from 1.35 to 3.22 m. Within the 44°N to 48°N regions, the following ranges are found 39.7 to 43.8° for the front slope angle, 42.3° to 46.3° for the back slope angle, 5.1 to 7.7 m for the ridge height, 3.2 to 4.8 m for the back wall height, and 1.84 to 4 m for the horizontal projection.

On the basis of deriving a table of ESSG structural parameters covering all high latitude regions of the world, six typical regions of the globe including Isfahan (32.8°N, Iran), Tokyo, (36°N, Japan), Shenyang, (41.5°N, China), Perugia (43°N, Italy), Ottawa (45.4°N, Canada), and Paris (48°N, France) were selected and the thermal performance was analyzed by experimental and numerical methods. Moreover, they were verified by examining the internal temperature, sunlight interception, and heat load of the greenhouse, respectively. The results showed that the structural parameters derived from the globalized methodology of ESSG design established in this study were optimal. For example, the ridge height of a 10 m span ESSG in Tokyo was 5.27 m, the back wall height was 3.18 m, the back roof horizontal projection was 1.5 m, the front slope angle was 31.8°, and the back slope angle was 54.3°. The 10 m span ESSG in Perugia had a ridge height of 6.25 m, a back wall height of 3.87 m, a back roof horizontal projection of 2.19 m, a front slope angle of 38.7°, and a back slope angle of 47.3°. The 10 m span ESSG in Paris had a ridge height of 6.92 m, a back wall height of 4.39 m, a back roof horizontal projection of 2.78 m, a front slope angle of 43.8°, and a back slope angle of 42.3°. This study can provide key theoretical support for the global application of ESSG for unheated overwintering production, which is conducive to the promotion of energy saving and emission reduction as well as high quality and safe production in the vegetable industries.

Y. Li, A. Shen, X. Liu, Y. Li*, T. Li Study on a Transverse-Longitudinal Ventilation Structure for Caged Chicken Houses CP China show/hide abstract

China produces 40% of the world's eggs and is the industry leader in terms of scale and technology. This is mainly attributed to the rapid development of large-scale chicken farming in agricultural buildings (i.e., caged chicken houses). Caged chicken houses are able to overcome the effects of the environment and allow for year-round production of chicken and eggs. Nevertheless, the chicken house is a relatively enclosed agricultural building used for intensive egg production. The indoor climate environment, especially the regulation of temperature and airflow, is crucial for chickens' healthy growth. Due to the low temperatures in winter, many farmers only pay attention to the insulation of chicken houses, while neglecting the ventilation and air exchange. On the one hand, it leads to elevated levels of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and other toxic gases in the chicken house, which poisons the chickens. On the other hand, the high temperature and poor air quality are also prone to diseases such as cardiac and hepatic peritonitis in chickens, resulting in serious losses. Furthermore, if the ventilation airflow path in the caged chicken house is unreasonable, chickens near the side walls are subjected to cold stress, while chickens in the middle have difficulty in accessing fresh air, resulting in decreased production performance and high economic losses. Therefore, the efficient ventilation structure and the reasonable airflow organization are crucial for high-quality and secure production in caged chicken houses.

At present, large-scale caged chicken houses usually use either longitudinal ventilation or transverse ventilation model. However, there are certain problems with both types of ventilation. Exhaust fans for longitudinal ventilation are insufficiently powerful to propel airflow along the length of the caged chicken houses. Moreover, transverse ventilations are easily blocked by chicken cages, resulting in uneven airflow organization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to design a combination of horizontal and vertical structure of the caged chicken house for winter ventilation. The reasonable setting of fans and air inlets is crucial for ventilation performance in caged chicken houses. This has an immediate effect on the ventilation capacity to provide a suitable environment for poultry production. In view of this, the study addresses the problem of ventilation structure of caged chicken houses. A novel ventilation structure combining horizontal and vertical model was designed based on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer theories. By employing model experiments and numerical simulations, the technical solutions were proposed for key structural parameters of caged chicken house ventilation, such as fan height, eave height, roof angle and deflector angle. During the experiment, smoke trajectories were recorded. Meanwhile, airflow distribution details were obtained through the numerical simulation. This was used to analyze the airflow organization in the caged chicken house. Furthermore, the variable analysis method was used to analyze the influence of key structural parameters of the caged chicken house on the ventilation effect. The exhaust time for discharging the same volume of smoke under different configurations was measured. And the ventilation efficiency and exhaust efficiency were then calculated. Simultaneously, the variations of temperature and humidity in the caged chicken house were measured and analyzed. Ultimately, the optimal structural configuration for winter ventilation of caged chicken houses was determined.

It was discovered that the opening angle of the roof ridge had a significant effect on the velocity distribution of airflow in the longitudinal vertical plane of the caged chicken house. A comparative analysis of the ridge opening angle from 150° to 160° was conducted and 155° was specified as the reasonable angle. Compared to other angles, the smoke exhaust time at this particular angle could be reduced by up to 3%. The ventilation efficiency could be increased by up to 11%. And the pollutant emission efficiency was increased by up to 8%. Moreover, the temperature and humidity distribution inside the caged chicken house was relatively uniform. At this time, the airflow velocity field on the inner breeding line of the central region was more homogenous and stable. The height of the eaves affected the velocity distribution of airflow. A comparative analysis of the eave height from 3.2 m to 3.7 m was conducted. And the optimal height of 3.4 m was determined. The smoke exhaust time at this particular height was reduced by up to 6%. Furthermore, the ventilation efficiency increased by up to 29%. And the pollutant emission efficiency increased by up to 6%. It was also observed the temperature and humidity variations followed a consistent pattern, suggesting the most uniform distribution of air velocity and density. The fan height had a direct effect on the convergence point of the airflow blowing into the vertical plane. A comparison of fan heights ranging from 2.2 m to 2.7 m was carried out and the ideal height was discovered to be 2.4 m. The smoke exhaust time at this specified height exhibited a potential reduction of 3%. Additionally, the ventilation efficiency could be enhanced by a maximum of 14%. And pollutant emission efficiency could be improved by 3%. The rate of decline in the temperature and humidity was relatively flat. Simultaneously, the airflow velocity was moderate and equally distributed, which was the best period for chicken house ventilation. The opening angle of the deflector had a significant effect on the direction and speed of airflow inside the chicken house. By comparing the deflector angles ranging from 15° to 90°, the optimal angle was discovered to be 45°. The smoke exhaust time at this particular angle could be reduced by up to 4%. The ventilation efficiency could be increased by up to 28%. The pollutant emission efficiency could be increased by up to 5%. Furthermore, temperature and humidity fluctuations were found to be more moderate. At the same time, the airflow around the chicken coops was similarly uniform, which was conducive to the adaptation of the chickens. This study addressed the issue that the chickens near the side wall suffered from respiratory diseases as well as the difficult access to fresh air in the middle of the caged chicken houses. The transverse-longitudinal ventilation structure proposed in this study greatly improved the production performance, and had a high value of popularization in the world. It was of great significance to optimize the airflow organization in the caged chicken house. The findings of this research can serve as a theoretical foundation for the system design of caged chicken houses for winter ventilation.

A. Vujanovic, A. Mio, D. Krajnc, M. Fermeglia* Impact of Construction and Operation of a Cable Car on the Environment and Biodiversity CP Italy show/hide abstract

The number of daily commuters is gradually rising as a result of the growing population in European cities, frequently resulting in an excessive use of cars. With the goal of limiting the potential negative impacts on the environment and air quality, the employment of cable car or airway systems has been proposed as a more environmentally friendly solution for improving the mobility of city areas. In this paper, a complete life cycle assessment of the construction, usage and disposal of a cable car in Italy for 30 years has been performed, along with an evaluation of biodiversity loss due to the required deforestation. The results of the impact evaluation have been compared with the impacts produced by the same number of passengers using their own vehicles to enter and exit the city. Following the comparison, a general trade-off between the impact categories needs to be identified, since the outcomes are strongly related to the electricity mix for producing the energy required for running the cable car and to the number of expected passengers using the cableway during its operational days.

K. Kalauz*, B. Bertok, M. Frits Reducing the Per Unit Energy Need of Manufacturing: Comparison of Time Slot and Precedence Based Mathematical Models and Optimization Algorithms OSCM Hungary show/hide abstract

In large-scale manufacturing plants, a significant portion of energy consumption is often attributed to fixed loads, such as heating, lighting, and ventilation and exhaust systems. Therefore, the energy demand per unit product is highly dependent on the utilization rate of the plant. In this presentation, we will compare two alternative optimization models that are capable of filling up idle time during large-scale manufacturing by efficiently scheduled smaller subcontractor tasks. One problem formulation uses predefined time slots and assigns potential capacities to each slot. The other formulation applies Time Constrained Process Network Synthesis (TCPNS) to compute precedences and exact starting times. The first formulation typically leads to a larger and less precise mathematical model, but it is much simpler and easier to solve. Therefore, it is worth comparing the practical applicability and computational needs of the two approaches. A real-life furniture production use case serves as a motivational example for the comparison of the two optimization models.

M. Choi, J. Jo, S. Lee* Estimation of the Interaction Relationship Between Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Based on Explainable Artificial Intelligence (Xai) PAM Korea, Republic of show/hide abstract

Carbon emissions from the transportation sector are considered to be the main cause of air pollution, and many efforts are being made to reduce air pollution by utilizing transportation demand management policies. In addition, fine dust information has recently been provided by weather forecasts. As a result, it has been observed that the air environment activates certain means of transportation, such as walking and bicycling. In other words, it can be inferred that transportation and air pollution are not unilaterally dependent, but mutually influential. Therefore, this study aims to identify the causal relationship between traffic congestion and air pollution. Spatial coverage was 113 major points in Seoul, and the temporal coverage was from April 1, 2023 to August 31, 2023. First, the dataset was classified by k-means clustering to effectively analyze transportation and environmental variables. Then, ensemble algorithms were used to build a model to predict air pollution with traffic variables and a model to predict traffic congestion with environmental variables. The XAI techniques were used to identify the feedback effects of traffic congestion and air pollution on each other by utilizing the optimal model. For transportation variables, humidity, pedestrian traffic, and subway congestion were highly significant, and for environmental variables, resident population rate, PM2.5, and PM10 were highly significant. When checking the environmental influencing factors by regions, the impact of subway boarding and alighting was higher in residential areas than in commercial development areas, but the impact of road congestion in residential areas was lower. For transportation factors, PM10, CAI in commercial development areas, and PM2.5, PM10 in residential areas had a great influence on determining the dependent variable value. When examining the environmental and transportation influencing factors with a focus on temporal characteristics, traffic congestion was higher during peak hours and air quality was better at the end of the month than at the beginning of the month within the collection period. Consequently, the contribution of this study is that it spatiotemporally identifies the correlation between traffic conditions and air quality, and how they have a feedback system with each other. Therefore, utilizing the process of this study will help to establish urban transportation and environmental policies to achieve net zero.

S. Aubakirova, M. Zhanaspaev, A. Tlemisov, A. Musabekov, B. Azamatov, M. Sadenova*, S. Rudenko, D. Dogadkin, N. Beisekenov Development of a “Smart” Computerized Orthopedic Robotic Device for Minimally Invasive Reposition of Pilon Fractures MO Kazakhstan show/hide abstract

One of the most promising areas for increasing the efficiency of modern surgery is the introduction of a computerized orthopedic robotic surgical system. This paper explores key capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) that will help surgeons understand and critically evaluate new applications of AI and contribute to new developments. With the advantages of precise operation and effective radiation reduction, robotic surgeons have become one of the best options for solving traditional surgery defects. Robots in orthopedic surgery have developed rapidly over the decades and provide significant benefits to patients and healthcare providers. However, robotics for fracture repair remains in its early stages. The authors have developed a hybrid robotic device that combines a removable series-parallel mechanism with servos. For the treatment of pilon fractures, it is proposed to develop a robotic device based on the operating principles of the Stewart platform. The kinematics of the robotic device resembles a Hexapod in appearance. The robotic device is a transosseous device that operates on the basis of active computer navigation, that is, using software, the operator controls a mechanical device, the latter, in turn, performs certain movements. The robotic device proposed by the authors allows for the reduction of pilon fractures in all planes and degrees of freedom. Correction of pilon fractures is carried out under constant X-ray control, using a C-arch, which greatly simplifies the operation. Doctors can monitor the process in real time and adjust if necessary. One of the effects of our device is to reduce operating time, improve the quality of reposition of pilon fractures, and reduce postoperative complications.

Q. Yuan, C. Zhang, S. Wu, Y. Chen, D. Han, B. Yu*, J. Wei Operation Optimization of a Heated Crude Oil Pipeline System Based on Different Decision Indicators MO China show/hide abstract

For a heated crude oil pipeline system, three decision indicators including calorific value, energy cost and carbon emission are adopted to unify the fuel consumption from heating furnaces and the electricity consumption from pumps. A general operation optimization model with the optimal goals of three decision indicators is established. An intelligent optimization method combining the hybrid coded genetic algorithm and dynamic penalty coupled with the pipeline system simulation is applied to solve the optimization model. The operation variables of devices in the pipeline system can intelligently transition from random values to feasible solutions, and then from feasible solutions to optimal solutions. The optimal operation schemes show significant differences under three decision indicators. It is found that the optimal operation scheme corresponding to the “calorific value” goal is unreasonable and not recommended due to the excessive undervaluation of the electricity consumption from pumps. The optimal operation scheme corresponding to the “carbon emission” goal induces a high energy cost. However, it gradually exhibits low energy costs with the development of new energy and the decrease in carbon emission coefficient, simultaneously beneficial to the environment and reducing the operation expense for enterprises.

M.H. Sabki, P.Y. Ong*, C.T. Lee, N. Ibrahim, Y.V. Fan, H. El-Enshasy The Conceptual Framework of Amino Acid Metabolism in Plant with Inoculation of Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria BSWM Malaysia show/hide abstract

Purple non-sulphur bacteria (PNSB) have attracted considerable attention for their ability in producing various of beneficial metabolites and thus serves as alternative to replace conventional chemical fertilizer. Extensive efforts have been devoted to investigate the interaction of PNSB-plant in plant metabolic response to facilitating in plant growth development. Among these, amino acids serve as the key building blocks in plant growth biosynthesis pathway are of great interest as regulation of amino acid metabolism may differ between plant and microbes. This research aims to present a comprehensive overview to describe amino acid metabolic response in plant growth development with inoculation of PNSB. A conceptual framework is proposed to discuss the relationship of the PNSB-induced essential amino acids and their repectively relationship to produce secondary plant metabolites (eg: 3-acetic acid (IAA) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)). This framework provides valuable insights into underlying amino acid metabolic network and its interaction with PNSB for plant growth development and can be used as a benchmark to discover other key metabolic pathways involved in plant growth development in the future.

C. Casals Miralles, J. Puhar, S. Krumpak, P.S. Varbanov, J. Colón Jordà, A. Vujanovic* Social and Environmental Impacts of Traveling: Case Study from Canada to the Mediterranean FMM Slovenia show/hide abstract

Although Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is widely acknowledged as a valuable approach for evaluating environmental impacts, comprehensive LCA studies in tourism that address multiple impact categories beyond Carbon Footprint are seldom found. Furthermore, there is a notable absence of research on social LCA in tourism, creating several methodological knowledge gaps related to the identification of social indicators, data collection, and impact assessment methods. To address this challenge, this paper introduces a combined environmental and social LCA focusing on an 8-day trip undertaken by a Canadian tourist group across Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. The assessment encompasses key tourism domains such as air transport, leisure activities, accommodation, and food and beverage consumption, examining eleven environmental impact categories. Social LCA takes into account various factors influencing the well-being of groups within the tourism value chain, including workers and local communities. The findings highlight air transport as the primary environmental concern and illuminate global social risks and opportunities extending beyond the visited countries. Alternative improvement scenarios are scrutinized, suggesting options to reduce energy accommodation impacts by 90% and food impacts by 51%. This study contributes to comprehending practical challenges and establishes a foundation for standardizing LCA methodologies in tourism.

S. Zhang*, P. Ocłoń, P.S. Varbanov The Development of Renewable Energy for Residential Buildings Utilisation REUS Poland show/hide abstract

Renewable Energy Systems (RESs) show great potential to reach the goal toward sustainable development, especially for construction buildings, which contribute around 40% of total energy consumption. Buildings utilise renewable energy sources in many ways, including on-site or distributed energy supply. Heating, cooling and electricity are the major energy usage in buildings. Renewable energy, including solar energy, heat pump, biomass, nuclear energy and wind energy, attracts boosting attention to buildings to coming closer to sustainable Net Zero Energy. This paper analysed hybrid RESs applied in buildings, mostly combined with thermal and electrical energy storage. Performance assessment approaches of RESs in buildings were investigated and recent optimisation methods of RESs in buildings were reviewed. Based on the conducted literature survey it has been found that still exists a significant potential in renewable energy transitions of the buildings. Thermal retrofit will reduce the building heat energy demand. Hybrid renewable energy units shall be used reasonably based on the location climate. Finally, it summarised some challenging issues for renewable energy systems in building applications.

M. Irgolič, M. Čolnik, L. Čuček, M. Škerget* Chemical Composition Analysis of Oils from Different Polyethylene Materials Obtained by Hydrothermal Decomposition CEI Slovenia show/hide abstract

Plastics pollution has escalated globally, especially due to the increased use of polyolefins such as polyethylene (PE), which is currently the most commonly used plastics. These durable and slow-degrading plastics persist for centuries, endangering ecosystems, wildlife, and human health. To combat this, recycling has been proposed as a solution. Supercritical water hydrolysis, which is an environmentally sound technology, is a promising approach for recycling polyolefins. This technology offers advantages such as complete depolymerization and environmental protection by avoiding hazardous solvents and harmful byproducts. This innovative method has the potential to revolutionize plastic pollution management and promote a circular economy and sustainable future.

In this work, a comparative study of the degradation of virgin (vPE) and recycled (rPE) polyethylene by a hydrothermal batch process was conducted at 450 °C for 15 - 240 min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed over 90 different components in each oil, which were classified into six main groups: alkanes, alkenes, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and others. Initially, alkanes and alkenes dominated in both PE oils. After 15 min, the oil from vPE contained 35.6 % alkanes and 57.3 % alkenes, while the oil from rPE contained more alkanes (47.3 %) than alkenes (40.9 %). Longer reaction times facilitated the significant formation of aromatic compounds. After 240 min, the oil from vPE contained 71.0 % aromatic hydrocarbons, and the oil from rPE contained 79.4 % aromatic hydrocarbons. The results of the study indicate also that the material quality plays a crucial role in the chemical composition of the resulting oil, which underlines its importance for the design of the hydrothermal process.

O. Plohl, L. Fras Zemljič, A. Erjavec, M. Čolnik, Y.V. Fan, M. Škerget, A. Vujanovic, L. Čuček, J. Volmajer Valh* Decomposition and Fragmentation of Conventional and Biobased Plastic Wastes in Simulated and Real Aquatic Systems EN Slovenia show/hide abstract

Various types of plastics have emerged as important materials in our daily life due to their numerous attractive properties. It has been reported that global plastic production was estimated to exceed 400 Mt in recent years, with various projections showing that its production will more than double by 2050. Moreover, globally, more than 40% of plastic waste ends up in landfills, leaving a large environmental footprint. Additionally, the disposal of plastic waste in aqueous systems has several negative impacts, such as fragmentation into micro- and nanoplastics, leading to serious negative consequences for natural ecosystems and for human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to study and understand the degradation and fragmentation behaviour of different plastics in simulated and real water systems. For this purpose, three different types of plastics were used to study their end-of-life behaviour in a time frame of 1 and 6 months, i.e., bio-based polylactic acid (PLA) as a foil, thermoplastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and thermoset melamine-etherified resin (MER)) in the form of nonwoven fabrics. All plastic samples were exposed to simulated waters (pH 4, 7, 10) as well as to real water systems, such as tap water and seawater. After aging of the plastics, both the solid fraction and the liquid phase subsequent to leaching were analyzed by different physico-chemical methods, along with an investigation into the formation of microplastics. The solid plastic waste was analyzed by gravimetric analysis, the presence of functional groups by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the morphology and size by optical microscope. For the liquid plastic fraction, the fragmented plastic materials were analyzed using the following parameters: pH, conductivity, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) and particle size of micro/nanoplastic formation and in-situ FTIR analysis under the microscope. The results showed that no specific change was observed in terms of fragmentation of PET nonwoven fabrics after six months of aging, for the bio-based PLA minor changes were observed after exposure to different waters, while significant fragmentation was observed for MER nonwoven fabrics in all studied waters. The latter may lead to serious environmental problems as the MER nonwoven fabrics are difficult to degrade. The fibers fragmentations (micro or nano forms) can persist for extended periods, accumulating within ecosystems. The results of this study indicate the importance of the structure of plastics, which is closely related to their fragmentation behaviour.

A. Petrovič*, P. Završki, S. Vohl, I. Ban, L. Čuček, M. Simonič Hydrothermal Conversion of Agro-Industrial Wastes for Use in Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions BSWM Slovenia show/hide abstract

Biomass and agro-industrial waste represent a valuable source of raw materials that can be used to produce high-value products such as adsorbents, catalysts or supercapacitors. The production of vegetable oils generates numerous by-products, such as various oil cakes (sunflower, linseed, hemp, etc.), which could be used as a source for the production of new products. Adsorbents or activated carbon are mostly obtained by pyrolysis, while hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is less commonly used, although it offers many advantages as it does not require prior drying of the biomass. Since the adsorption capacity of untreated feedstocks is often low, they need to be chemically or physically modified. Acids, bases, oxidizing agents, and salts are used for chemical modification. Compared to strong acids, organic acids (citric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid, etc.) are more environmentally friendly and have proven successful in the modification of hydrochar. There is little information in the literature on the use of other alternative natural modifiers, such as vinegar. Wastewater contains a variety of pollutants, including dyes, pesticides and heavy metals. Dyes such as methylene blue, which is widely used in the textile, pulp and paper industries, are a particularly big problem, so they must be removed from wastewater.

In this study, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used to produce hydrochar from the oil cake of industrial hemp seeds, which has not been previously studied for the purpose in question. The carbonization was carried out in an autoclave reactor at 250 °C, using cheese whey as the process fluid. The hydrochar obtained was chemically modified with four chemical reagents: KOH, acetic acid, alcoholic vinegar and wine vinegar. Both vinegars were obtained by a natural pickling process and served as natural alternatives to acetic acid. The chemical treatment was followed by thermal treatment of the samples, i.e. pyrolysis in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at 800 °C. The obtained activated hydrochars were chemically characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the specific surface area, pore size distribution and zeta potential were determined. Finally, the effectiveness of the modified hydrochar in removing the dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions was investigated.

T. Ma* Numerical Study on Flow-Thermal-Stress Performance of High Temperature and High Pressure Mini-Channel Heat Exchangers HEHT China show/hide abstract

High temperature/high pressure mini-channel heat exchangers have wide application prospects in high-temperature/high-pressure energy power systems such as supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, very high-temperature reactor, pressurized water reactor, and hydrogen coolers. The flow, heat transfer, stress and deformation have an important impact on the efficiency, volume, weight, and safety of the whole systems. However, these heat exchangers often use many mini-channels, which leads to maldistribution inside the heat exchangers, resulting in nonuniform temperature field and stress concentration. However, it is difficult for these heat exchangers to analyze their flow, heat transfer, stress and deformation characteristics using traditional CFD and finite element methods. Therefore, it is necessary to study the flow-thermal-stress multiscale numerical simulation method. This report mainly includes three aspects: 1) Introduction of a numerical simulation method for flow and heat transfer based on non-equilibrium porous media model; 2) Introduction of a numerical simulation method for deformation based on progressive homogenization theory; 3) Introduction of the flow-thermal-stress multiscale numerical simulation method based on the above two methods, as well as its application in heat exchangers used for typical high-temperature and high-pressure energy power systems.

A.E. Plesu Popescu*, E. Meco, J. Bonet-Ruiz, J. Llorens Carbon Dioxide to Methanol Valorization by Process Intensification ES Spain show/hide abstract

Nowadays, the CO2 capture is prompted by the climate emergency, with chemical absorption by aqueous 30% MEA solution being the most widely used industrially. To avoid emissions into the atmosphere, collected CO2 is sequestered or valorized into valuable goods. Energy resources that do not rely on fossil fuels, on the other hand, are promoted. The energy excess is transformed to H2 due to their fluctuation and weather dependency. The hydrogenation of CO2 may yield a variety of valuable chemicals, including methanol, which is one of the most extensively used chemical molecules. The goal of this study is to determine the viability of enhancing the overall process by feeding the CO2-rich stream from the chemical absorption using MEA into a reactive distillation column. The CO2 lean stream containing MEA is collected at the reactive distillation bottoms and recycled to the chemical absorption column. The methanol is collected at the distillate, however due to the amount of H2 gas, a partial condenser in the reactive column is necessary to recycle the H2. The liquid phase collected at the distillate is fed into a second distillation column to purify the aqueous methanol. The MEA-absorbed CO2 flows downward into the reactive column, while the hydrogen flows upward, resulting in an effective reactant counter-current flow. The ENRTL-HG thermodynamic model is used to calculate chemical equilibrium in each distillation step while minimising the Gibbs free energy; the Redlich-Kwong equation of state is assumed for the vapour phase. The approach is novel in that it does not need the recovery of a pure CO2 stream; rather, CO2 desorption and hydrogenation take place simultaneously in the same unit. The availability of H2 is expected to reduce MEA oxidation in the CO2 recovery high-temperature cycle. More experimental study is needed to identify the reaction kinetics and optimise the process. The suggested innovative process scheme has been demonstrated to be feasible and presents novel prospects to improve CO2 hydrogenation to methanol more competitive and environmentally friendly.

A. Polyvianchuk, R. Semenenko, O. Tur, O. Arsenyeva* Mathematical Model of Energy Efficiency for the Intelligent Residential Heating Systems MO Germany show/hide abstract

An urban housing consumes the most energy in European countries accounting for up to 43% of final energy, while 65% of it is spent on house heating and hot tap water supply. At the same time, nearly 85% of the buildings in the EU were built in the 20th century, and 90% of the now existing buildings will serve up to 2050 and later, while their energy efficiency is still rather low. To achieve the carbon neutrality in urban housing, the renovation of buildings and their energy systems is needed, where the new intelligent strategies for heating systems control, enabling the reduction of energy consumption, are of great importance, which will ensure economic recovery and sustainability. One of the strategies for renovation of existing buildings is the estimation of their energy efficiency and utilisation of the intelligent control system, accounting for the building sides orientation towards the cardinal directions. The present work proposes a mathematical model of energy efficiency of intelligent heating system, which is based on estimating of building energy performance indicators, including energy, environmental and economic criteria, and evaluates the total energy efficiency of the heating system considering the value of heat gain from solar radiation. The case studies for municipal buildings in Kharkiv, Ukraine are presented, showing that energy efficiency from smart control systems implementation with building side oriented to south can come up to 41 % comparing to initial case, without accounting the heat gained from solar radiation.

Q.Y. Ong, K. Ragaert, S.Y. Teng* Quality Targeting of Mixed Plastics via Selection of Processing Pathway Using Superstructural Representation and Modelling CEI Netherlands show/hide abstract

In line with the Dutch transition agendas to reduce industrial carbon footprint, plastic circularity is encouraged by complementing current mechanical recycling technologies with chemical recycling, namely pyrolysis. The standard Dutch post-consumer mixed plastics bale (DKR-350) consists of low-quality polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and other residues. Improving the stream quality from low to medium/high is crucial when this stream is considered for a pyrolysis feedstock candidate. Primary challenges in improving feedstock quality include eliminating harmful elements from the bale and obtaining high-purity PE and PP. Thus, an extra-sorting process comprising a shredder(s), optical plastic sorters, washer(s), float-sink sorter(s) and dryer(s), is suggested. This work aims to determine the best arrangement and required number of units in the extra-sorting process, to maximize the recovery and purity, and minimise undesirable contaminants of this stream. A graphical superstructural model approach containing all logical arrangements and a combination of units is employed. All units are represented by a node, whereby each node-to-node connection signifies a possible process line. The base model is first set up using constant split factor values obtained via mass balance calculations. Later, machine learning (ML) techniques are incorporated to predict the performance of each unit per a database containing historical measurements. The combination of ML into this base model generates a real-time predictive model, to be applied in the industry as a fast-track feedstock quality assessment tool. This ensures an increase in alternative fuel availability and is therefore another sustainable solution to combating climate change.

S.Y. Teng*, Á. Orosz, J. Pimentel, F. Friedler, J. Jansen Uncovering the European Power Infrastructure: Digital Twin and Multivariate Analysis REUS Netherlands show/hide abstract

With adoption of the European Green Deal, the target to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030 (compared to 1990 levels) requires higher renewable energy fraction and energy efficiency. This transformative agenda necessitates a comprehensive re-evaluation of the power infrastructure within the European Union (EU). It is crucial to comprehend the complex dynamics and interactions that support this internationally-spanned system. Our work is focused on developing a near-real-time digital twin that will model the EU's energy infrastructure in response to this goal. Additionally, our research presents a novel approach that uses multiway data analysis to reveal the dynamics regulating power distribution in the EU's energy infrastructure. For this, we propose the use of the multi-way decomposition method Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) for the decomposition of EU power data. This innovative method not only clarifies the current power dynamics but also makes it easier to comprehend how renewable energy sources have developed and been integrated. This research aims to advance the goals of the European Green Deal and aid the EU's transition to a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy future by creating and utilizing these cutting-edge tools and practices.

A. Vujanovic*, L. Čuček, F.A. Vicente, B. Likozar, R. Pučnik An Environmental and Energetic Perspective of a Sustainable Shrimp Shell Waste Biorefinery Process FMM Slovenia show/hide abstract

The oceans have become an invaluable resource for humanity. With the global population expected to further grow in the next decades and available land resources becoming increasingly scarce, there has been a significant shift toward aquaculture and fish farming, particularly in the last three decades [1]. This transition has been accompanied by the rise of the seafood processing industry, which generates substantial amounts of waste. As crustaceans’ by-products hold limited economic value within the food sector, and current disposal practices have adverse effects on the environment [2], there is a need to develop alternative solutions to process such a waste. Crustaceans’ shells contain valuable compounds, such as chitin, astaxanthin, proteins and minerals, making them prime candidates for valorization through a biorefinery approach. Given that conventional shrimp shell processing methods are characterized by their high impact on the environment, a more sustainable and economical biorefinery approach would be desired.

This study aims to evaluate the environmental implications associated with sustainable shrimp shell waste biorefinery process [3]. The laboratory-scale biorefinery process was first scaled-up to pilot and industrial scale processes, based on equipment design. For the evaluated biorefinery process at different scales, energy and environmental impact analyses were performed. Energy analysis was determined with computer simulation tools by considering the power requirements of individual units. Environmental impact analysis was conducted using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, to assess the environmental burdens and unburdens of evaluated process, together with identification of key bottlenecks.

L. Fras Zemljič*, L. Čuček, T. Labohar, M. Škerget, M. Čolnik, S. Smole Mozina Green Coating Technology for Pla with Natural Extracts and Polysaccharides as Potential Active Packaging Concept CP Slovenia show/hide abstract

Coating technology for films/foils to impart specific functional properties can have both positive and negative environmental impacts, depending on various factors such as the materials used, the manufacturing processes, and end-of-life disposal. Particularly negative environmental impacts need to be addressed, especially when there are still significant disadvantages. Among these, chemical usage, energy consumption, waste generation, non-biodegradability, toxic runoff, and end-of-life disposal must be addressed appropriately. To minimize these negative effects, it's essential to adopt sustainable practices in both the materials and processes used in film coating and to consider the entire lifecycle of the product, from production to disposal. Mitigation and sustainable practices involve using environmentally friendly and biodegradable coating materials whenever possible and employing eco-friendly manufacturing coating processes, such as low-energy curing methods and water-based coatings, to minimize environmental impact. The coating technology should also aim to ensure that byproducts and waste from the coating process are kept to a minimum or can be reused.

In this paper, we aimed to develop antioxidant, antimicrobial, and biodegradable functional plastic films. The biodegradable PLA films were functionalized with a coating formulation of juniper extract and chitosan, which was applied to the film surface using five different methods: spraying, rolling, dipping, impregnation, and supercritical fluid technology. The performance of the substances and methods used was investigated through physicochemical analysis, including Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ATR-FTIR, goniometry, barrier properties (oxygen permeability), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS, Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, transparency, and bioactivity. Functionality was examined through standard tests of antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) analysis were conducted to assess and minimize the environmental impact of the products and processes. The LCC analysis aimed to analyze the total cost over the entire life cycle.

The results show that the functional PLA film, where the coating was applied by dip coating technology, proved to be the most suitable for practical application in terms of environmental and cost suitability. Furthermore, excellent antimicrobial performance was achieved, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, along with excellent barrier and antioxidant properties and very good anti-condensation properties, all of which are of high importance for usability od these films in active packaging.

M. Dokl*, Y.V. Fan, Z. Kravanja, L. Čuček Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Polyethylene Production Considering Gradual Transition from Fossil to Bio-Based Plastics SM Slovenia show/hide abstract

The excessive and unsustainable production and consumption of plastics, as well as inadequate disposal practices, have resulted in global plastic pollution causing significant harm for the environment and human health. Currently, plastics and plastic-additive contaminants are predominantly derived from petrochemical sources that rely heavily on non-renewable resources such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. To address these challenges, this study aims to investigate the potential transition from fossil-based plastic to bio-based one, based on technical substitution potential of bioplastics [1]. The transition in the next decades is studied for the most widely used plastic, polyethylene (PE), which is used in various packaging materials such as plastic bags, films, bottles and more. Fossil-based manufacturing uses petroleum and natural gas as feedstocks, while bio-based process technologies use biomass sources such as sugarcane and corn. In this study, the replacement of fossil-based PE with bio-based PE is projected by 2050, where forecasted volumes are obtained from regression analysis employing time as independent variable [2]. Sensitivity analysis is performed considering different life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission values reported in the literature for fossil [3] and bio-based PE [1]. GHG emissions of PE production are influenced by several factors, including biomass sources, conversion technologies, electricity generation methods, heat provision processes, transportation distances and other factors.

F. Friedler* Resilience of Processing Systems: Analysis and Synthesis PSDO Hungary show/hide abstract
S. Nižetić* Photovoltaic Technologies and Applications in Energy Transition FMM Croatia show/hide abstract
Z. Kravanja* The Role of Mathematical Programming in a Combined Holistic Approach to the Synthesis of Sustainable Production Systems HEHT Slovenia show/hide abstract